New Haldorádó Products – 2017

New Haldorádó Products – 2017 It is a great honour to welcome everyone in this movie introducing the Haldorádó year 2017 new products! During the process of product developments we are motivated by three main aims primarily. The first and most important one is maximal effectiveness! The second one is to create such products, attractants which must be effective in small quantities too, and last but not least the simple application! I am an old hand in this profession, I have seen and experienced many things during the almost 40 years I have spent with fishing. In the “golden age” of fishing, of which by the way my movies witness, fishing would have been unimaginable without the use of a great deal of groundbait, while now, thanks to modern attractants, one half bag off groundbait and a single piece of plastic corn might be enough even for a whole day of fishing! With the help of these products even several quintals of fish can be landed! It probably makes you think what we will use 5 years from now, if the fishing industry keeps on developing in such rapid tempo?! I have some tips for this too, but first of all let’s have a look at what we are going to offer in 2017! Maintaining the tradition, firstly we would like to introduce the novelties of the big-fish product range, in which my companions will be two excellent members of Haldorádó Carp Team, Tamás Haskó and Ernõ Kerekes.

They have been doing their jobs with great enthusiasm and with ever increasing know-how for several years, the new products that we are going to introduce now are to be thanked to them. But before we would take these into account, especially now in the beginning of the year, we always remember back happily to the fish we caught in the previous season and which made our hearts pounding. Tomi! What was the most memorable catch of yours in the last year? Well, just as you have already mentioned it, Gábor, numerous beautiful memories link me to year 2016, but if I must emphasize just one from these now, I would connect it to the fishing trip we spent on the Szivárgó canal, where I managed to catch 6 wonderful carps during one night only! I believe that this trip was an outstanding experience for me! Well, especially in wild water environment! Yes, currently, as you could also see it, we opened towards river carp fishing many times, which means the very peak of boilie carp fishing for me.

Wow, that water area, and the wonderful footages that were shot their… To tell you the truth that is one of my favourite films! It has arisen my interest as a feeder fishing angler too, well, but this is the sound of the future, let’s get back to this later! Ernõ, I am turning to you now! What was the zenith for you in 2016? The most memorable moment is linked to one of the last fishing trips of the year, when we were fishing with Tomi on a water that had been unknown for both of us, and we prepared the introduction movie of the Haldorádó Record Carp Stick Mix there. I have already managed to catch a wonderful, more than 20 kilos big common carp there! One above 10 kg and one above 20 kg! Not bad! Can you lift it up? Well, tell me something my friend! I cannot say a word! It is an experienced old player! Very nice! We would need a bigger cradle, wouldn’t we?! If we will continue to do it like this! What else will happen today?! Oh my God! These are wonderful catches! Ernõ you too, and Tamás as well, you can be proud of those fish rightfully, which you caught last year and in the previous years, but the biggest pride for us is that, the numerous knowledge and experience gathered during the years incorporates in these products.

Tomi, let’s not draw time any further! Which is the product line that you would like to introduce primarily? Perhaps we should start with the Blue Fusion product range! Blue Fusion Boilie Products The basic idea for this product line came from the Blue Fusion pellet, which is a special, fishmeal-free, fruity and sour flavoured bait, which holds water during the whole year basically! It is not a secret that this bait was sold in the biggest number of pieces amongst the pellets of the Haldorádó palette in year 2016. From this point it was not a question for us that if this works so well during the quick feeder carp fishing, then – as customers’ needs also showed – we have to produce a more hook-resistant, and more durable version of it as well! When finally the tests of the Blue Fusion product range could get started, well that was when the real surprise came! We achieved such fantastic results with this bait in natural environment whereat we ourselves were also bewildered! From this point on events speeded up very much, we proceeded ahead like a knife through butter, feedbacks arrived very fast from fish, and eventually I can hold such a product line in my hand, of which eventual products we managed to produce within a very short period of time. I thought it would be important to tell this because we have such products, like for example the Record Carp Stick Mix too, in which case, months or even years may pass, until we can hold such a product in our hands with which we are maximally satisfied with as well.

After all this we proudly introduce the new Haldorádó Blue Fusion product line, which works very well both on natural and wild waters as well, and it does well on the intensely stocked lakes which are exposed to great pressure! The detailed introduction of this product took place in the 15th episode of On Big Carps’ Trail! It is a wonderful, golden yellow carp, I think I have never caught such a beautifully coloured carp before. Very nice! It is almost like a koi carp, but you know this can be due to this wild water. It is very beautiful! After my wonderful daytime fish, I would like to introduce the Blue Fusion palette, which will be extended with one new member from year 2017. You can find also the dissolving and boiled versions of the 800 gram package on the palette, and the boiled pop up and the dissolving floating varieties are also available. The big sized wafters baiting boilie is here next to it, this is 24 millimetres wide. The coated baits are next in line, which can be found in both boiled and dissolving version as well.

And here is a baiting boilie that can be dipped, the "Boilie in Dip" which is considered to be a peculiarity. And also the inevitable Carp Dip. The paste is also behind it, and here is the Carp Syrup, and last but not least the novelty of 2017, the Haldorádó Record Carp Stick Mix, which will be introduced in more detail later. Record Carp Stick Mix Ernõ, please, introduce our next significant new product line, which production was preceded by an extreme amount of systematic and precise work! What are the main features of this product? You see this very well, Gábor, this is an entirely new product line, the Record Carp Stick Mix, which we had to build up from the very basics. It consists of 8 different products, which are all guaranteed different one by one! The reason why all this lasted for so long is that we are talking about unique, independent products, which are in harmony with the flavours of our already existing boilie products, but at the same time we can increase the effectiveness of those products with the help of these! Its major features are that it is lumpy, big particle-sized, guaranteed sinking mixture that will surely remain on the bottom, it is a real delicacy for large fish! After opening the bag it can be filled in to the PVA net drily, but it might also be upgraded with Carp Syrup if you like, the way we also used it, in order to increase its efficiency! I suggest to watch the relevant part of the 16th episode of On Big Carps’ Trail in which we introduce the product in detail! So we would like to introduce in more detail the eight members of the Haldorádó Record Carp Stick Mix product line, which we are going to divide into two parts! There will be fish meal based, and fish meal free types! So let’s see these! Here are those three types in front of me, which share one mutual characteristic, namely that they include some fish meal.

The first one is the Black Squid. It has almost the strongest, fish meal – squid flavour which is a real protein bomb! The next one is the Green Pepper! This is a moderately fish meal based variety that includes original green pepper extract, this is the most effective bait of cold water fishing! And finally the third one, the Spicy Red Liver. The particularity of this is that, besides fish meal, it includes liver extract in powdered form, and Robin Red as well! This is a real four-season bait! The five fish meal free mixture can be seen here on the table, but there is one odd-one-out amongst them! And it is no other than the Big Fish! There is one thing you have to know about this is that it is a sweet mixture, but it contains fish pellets in great quantities, thus making this bait truly unique. This is the well-known, most intense taste, which has already deceived many old carps! The next one is the Blue Fusion, which received a strong fruity, very sour aroma, which cannot be compared to anything else! The Blue Fusion is followed by the FermentX in the line. This bait has a fermented, acidulated taste flavour, which is most winning for carps and grass carps during the summer months! The next one, perhaps the sweetest member of the boilie product assortment is the Sweet Pineapple! This offers a universal, four-season solution for the anglers! And last but not least the Wild Tiger, which is a natural type flavour that contains high tiger nut content, which is the best solution on wild waters! I believe that it is apparent from this how broad the Haldorádó Carp assortment range is, but this is not that makes it unique or particular on the market! But that we offer not one single product but a complete palette from every flavour, namely one can find every product from baiting to feeding! I would like to share one more useful information in connection with this product, since this was developed not only for boilie fishermen, but the feeder big-fish anglers can use it willingly also! But Gábor, you can tell the most about this in the most trustworthy matter.

During the active tests it became obvious for me that any feeder mixture’s nutritional value can be further enhanced with these, but what is even more important than this is that the average weight of fish caught with them further increased. Thus it is not a question for me that there is great potential in these mixtures for the advantage of the feeder big-fish anglers! With the help of these we can create such unique mixtures, which might help us catch even large-sized fish during the course of short-time fishing, no matter whether we are talking about an intensely stocked lake or a wild river! The best examples for this are the movies shot by Gábor Sipos and myself! Considering the upshot we made a very brutal, very intensive mixture! It is a pity that we cannot transmit smells and tastes for the camera, but this is a very special mixture! The method technique is the most effective carp fishing method on every part of the world! It helped me catch the umpteenth wonderful fish! The strength of Haldorádó has always laid in the products developed for the innovative, fast, feeder fishing, especially for carp. However this is not only one man’s work, but there is a complete team behind this! I am going to introduce the new products together with those fellow workers who played an active role in this.

Let’s see what the anglers can meet in 2017. But before I would go into this in detail, I will ask a question to my team mate. What was your year like? Józsi, firstly I would like to turn to you, what 2016 competition place or memorable catch are you the proudest? Unfortunately I did not manage to fish last year as much as I would have liked to, but perhaps I am the proudest of that I achieved 2nd place on the I. National Method Feeder Championship. Congratulations for this great achievement again, Józsi! But here is Sipi, who might have an even more successful year behind his back! Yes, year 2016 was a highly memorable year for me, because I managed to step on the podium again since 2014, on the Hungarian National Feeder Fishing Championship, since I reached 3rd place, and I closed on the 1st place of the MOHOSZ ranking at the end of the year.

Thus I qualified firstly for the national feeder fishing team that will travel to Portugal, thus finally I will be able to represent my country on a world championship! For this achievement not only you, but all of us can be proud rightfully! But here is last bit not least Tomi. What catch or result are you the proudest? Year 2016 has spent very successfully and meaningfully for me as well, but I would like to divide this issue in two parts, since I do not take part actively in competitions… But despite from this, your work does not worth any less! Furthermore, in certain circumstances you are much more useful member of our team than anybody else, because you have more time for the continuous testing and development of products. Thanks for complementing this! It is a great pleasure for me, and this is what I am the proudest of, namely that I can be present in the life of Haldorádó Team Ltd. as a full-time employee from year 2016. With this, a childhood dream of mine came true, and for now my hobby has become my work as well.

But, to answer your question too, it fills me with great joy and proudness, that I manage to develop the light-tackle variety product line of the Blue Fusion, of which I believe that it will cause happiness for many anglers, and it will also help them to catch excellent fish! Brutal Liver groundbait I am holding one of the most promising Haldorádó 2017 feeder groundbait in my hands, which is no other than the Brutal Liver! Gábor, what should we know about this? Very nice memories and very nice fish can be linked to this groundbait, but it is worth mentioning one thing, although the development of the product took place largely on the Maconka reservoir, during preparation for competition into the bargain, and though it helped the team to a very nice score on the I. Hungarian National Method Feeder Championship, that’s not the only place where the groundbait works well! We tested on many such intensely stocked lakes where the bream population embitters the life of carp fishermen.

That’s the place where this groundbait is really in its element, since its selective impact is extraordinary! This is a really special, characteristic, meaningful groundbait, which came into being and gained ultimate form after numerous days spent with fishing here. It works extremely well on lakes similar to this which are intensely stocked, that is exactly why it got its name Brutal Liver. 168 00:14:51,940 –> 00:14:57,129 This mixture will be available as a new member of the Top Method Feeder series from next year. Before I would start talking about its nutritional value, it is worth mentioning, that the other advantage of this groundbait, besides its meaningfulness, is that it contains awfully heavy particles and so it will stay on the bottom guaranteed where we can reckon carps are feeding.

As you can see it, the dumplings dissolve quickly, but there is not a single floating particle in it, it is guaranteed that this mixture will dissolve on the bottom, it will remain there beside the feeder and the bait. Right there where we reckon carps are located. I will pick it a little bit, it is apparent how it gets whirled up, but the heavy particles will go back to the bottom within moments only. Considering its consistency this is a perfect method groundbait, but what is the case with its nutritional value? This attractant consists of flesh and blood fishmeal, and liver powder and ground halibut pellets. So this is a very meaningful mixture, and besides this, we even densified it at competitions with Micro Method Feed Pellets and small-sized halibut pellets.

I told this sentence, and behold, there is no trace of the whirled groundbait already, it sank back to the bottom nicely. After listing the components of it perhaps it is not surprising that we are talking about a groundbait which smell is not quite pleasant for the human nose, but the point is that carps come at it like wasps at honey. There are many little disturbing fish, mainly bream fish here in Maconka. With this groundbait we can select the number of disturbing small fish to zero. Hybrid Method Pellet When we were preparing for the I. Method Feeder National Championship and read the rules of the competition, we came across with the fact that solely the use of natural baits were allowed! This was interesting for us since we are convinced, that one of the most effective bait during method feeder fishing is plastic corn. Well, the use of this was out of the question, but in order to substitute it, we were working with full force on an alternative bait that could take the place of the plastic corn! Well, this is how the Hybrid Method Pellet came into being, which proved to be so successful, that, after the competition, it was no longer a question for us that we will make this available for everyone! Especially because, you know, not only common-sized carps, but large ones also willingly fed on this bait, which size and lifting force is perfectly ideal for the method feeder fishing! It comes in 6 popular tastes, and these are the following: Honey Brandy, Blue Fusion, Sweet Pineapple, Chilli Squid, Red Demon, and finally Garlic.

This bait can be offered the easiest way on a bait sting, but it can be also laced onto a bait floss! I will put one piece of Hybrid Method Pellet on the 7 mm bait sting, this is no other than the renewed version of our old Hybrid pellet. This is a novelty product of 2017, which is a corn-shaped, coloured and flavoured floating bait. It is ideal for this method. It will be available in six different flavour varieties, I laced on the bait sting a Blue Fusion variety now of these, but I have another favourite, namely the Garlic taste! All flavours come in two different colour varieties, but those who would like to try out all six tastes, they can purchase them on a reasonable price in a six-piece pack! Method Spray Józsi, you have mentioned it in the introduction that on the I. Method Feeder National Championship you managed to reach a very good place, you reached 2nd place! But we both know it very well, that this could be even better than this, namely even the first place was not too far from you neither. What was the secret of that you managed to attain such a good place on this competition? Of course it could have been better too, but I am very happy for this 2nd place as well, since I achieved this 2nd place within very highly-ranked and “big names” in feeder fishing.

To be successful we primarily need a good groundbait and a good bait, but after a while all this is not enough either! In order to maintain fish’s curiosity, we used a liquid aroma, which name is Method Spray. By alternately spraying these aromas either on the groundbait or on the bait, we managed to have a bait in 1-2 minutes! But let’s see this in practice in our film shot on Maconka! Józsi, you and Gábor together started the row with very beautiful fish. You both managed to land extraordinary size fish right at the beginning. What is that tiny trick which will help us to keep up large fish’s interest continuously? There has been always great significance of using aromas here on Maconka. Let’s think about it! A grounding feeding was made, if we cast our rigs with the same groundbait to the fed spot, it would not stand out from that medium, this is why we direct fish to the feeder with aroma impulses. For this purpose I used the dense aromas of the Fluo energy product line, which will come out in 2017. Its name is Method Spray.

Józsi, how many flavour varieties will this product be available in? In all flavours of the Fluo Energy product line, namely six different versions. What is the difference between the Method spray, and the Fluo Essence which comes in similar taste? The carrier material of the two aromas are entirely different. The Fluo Essence is a dense aroma, which arouses fish’s interest with its irresistible taste and the cloud that it produces during its dissolution, and its effect can last even for 30 minutes. The Method Spray is not as dense, but a really thick aroma concentration, which exerts its influence explosively, it works extremely quickly. Thanks to this I had more bites, which appeared within one minute after the cast, even during competition circumstances! Blue Fusion Feeder Products We will continue the line of Haldorádó new products with a very special product line, the Blue Fusion.

Tomi, you are clearly the father of this. What should we know about these and what products do they include? Well, one thing which I would like to note in connection with these products is that their development were in progress for a long time, thus, there are plenty of working hours, numerous fishing and experience in them, and at the end, I believe, we managed to find those products which were worth waiting for! The most spectacular member of the family is the Fluo Energy Blue Fusion groundbait. This is such a modern, extravagant mixture, which offers newness both for the fish, and for the experimental type anglers too. Of course the Micro Method Feed Pellet could not be left out of the Blue Fusion line either, which is a pellet developed for selective big-fish fishing. A complete liquid aroma group is right here next to it! From these, I would like to highlight first the Fluo Flavour, and the denser, thicker version of it is next to it, namely the Fluo Essence, and the CSL Tuning Cold-water aroma, and finally, an absolute new product, the Method Spray.

Of course there was development on the bait line as well, thanks to this, beside the family-founding Dissolving Fluo Floating Pellet, the Hybrid Method Pellet, and a special bait imitation, the SpéciPellet, are also available now! If you would like to get further information on these products, and if you would like to acquire more useful cold-water tricks, I recommend you to watch my newest movie, which I filmed together with Gábor Sipos, which title is “Only the Blue – Available in New Effective Varieties!”. Spéci Pellet We continue the line with the introduction of two very special baits, the first one of these is the Haldorádó SpéciPellet. I stated clearly in the introduction that the biggest motivation for us during product development is simple usability. Well, I believe that this product matches this requirement maximally, but what we must know about this exactly will be told by Gábor in detail! I believe I do not surprise anyone if I tell you that the SpéciCorn products are leaders on our sales lists. We found that it was time to broaden the palette with a pellet-shaped bait imitation.

However it was not enough for us to offer new tastes and new shapes, our intention was to create a bait that can be used as easily as possible! For the application of this bait you don’t need bait stings or baiting needles, you only need a hook and nothing more! But the best is if I show you this in practice! The recognition came after the creation of the SpéciMaggot that it would be good to develop a bigger bait, especially produced for carp fishing, which the angler could put onto the hook right after he or she takes it out of the jar. We were thinking about such a bait-size which could be a successful bait on its own as well, and basically there is no need for any further products for the application of it. This is how SpéciPellet was born, which is a barrel-shaped twelve millimetre wide bait.

Just as we take this out of the jar, the silicone stem on this pellet imitation is striking to us immediately, on the end of which there can be found a little ring. This tiny little detail makes this bait really easy to use, since we have nothing else to do, than to choose the suitable size hook, then push the point of the hook through the ring and pull the bait up to the hook’s bend. This baiting method took me only about five seconds. thus, those who were afraid of the use of such bait imitations until now, because they do not like the bait sting, or the bait floss; well, behold, now they too can find a suitable alternative for the use of it! The newest generation of Spéci products also comes in six different flavours, these are the following: Blue Fusion, Strawberry and Honey, Pineapple-Banana, Garlic and Clam, Spicy Liver, and Octopus and Squid.

Thanks to the wide choice it is sure that there will be some types which will be successful on intensely fished waters, and there will be others which will be effective on natural, smaller fish density lakes. FermentX Big-Fish Bait We are closing the line of baits with a very special product that was made available already in the summer of 2016. Sipi, what was the reason of this? One of the reason for this was that the development phase had already ended and the product had received an excellent rating. And the other reason was that this bait is lactic-acid based and the real season for such a bait is clearly summer, and early autumn, so it would have been totally unnecessary to wait until January with the launching of the product. So now we can report on what this bait is like, and how much fish people caught with it already, and not on what it would be like! Perhaps there are still many people whom the news of the FermentX Big-Fish Bait did not reached yet, I recommend for them our movie with Tamás Putz entitled "Using FermentX for Large Fish!", in which we introduce it in detail how to use this bait! So, can you see it?! Those are the fish which I am talking about right now! You would like to catch such fish now too, don’t you? 🙂 That is for sure! The worthily popular family of FermentX products broadened with a new member.

296 00:25:54,240 –> 00:25:58,740 For the delight of big fish anglers, we created such a bait that was developed especially for the aimed fishing for large-sized fish and it has significantly longer dissolution time, and as it is apparent, significantly bigger size too. 299 00:26:09,069 –> 00:26:15,550 This difference in size is most conspicuous when I put a normal FermentX Dissolving Pellet beside it. This difference speaks for itself! Such a big sized bait selects fish out well, 301 00:26:21,839 –> 00:26:24,999 and what is the best in it is that this is also dissolving. 302 00:26:24,999 –> 00:26:32,870 It is working nicely in the water, its surface softens up slowly, while its inner part remains hard as a stone. Depending on the temperature of the water it bears 5-7 hours in the water without the need for exchanging it. Of course in most of the cases there is no need to wait for so long, but one thing is for sure, that smaller fish will not be able to take this off, as opposed to other smaller, softer baits.

Considering its shape, this resembles to a barrel, but looking at its material this is a transition between the boilie and the pellet. This is exactly why it got its name, FermentX Big Fish bait. 308 00:27:00,840 –> 00:27:05,839 Just as the other members of the FermentX family, this also comes in 6 different flavours, 309 00:27:05,839 –> 00:27:13,560 it differs from the smaller sized FermentX Dissolving Pellet in its usage as well, 310 00:27:13,560 –> 00:27:18,899 since as you can see it, this does not come in drilled version, but this is a concise bait. 311 00:27:18,899 –> 00:27:26,920 However, this conciseness does not appear in its weight, thus it is very easy to balance it and lighten it. Maggot River, Method River Feeders Anglers who know well Haldorádó products and use them regularly got used to that we pay emphasized attention not only to the development of groundbaits, baits and aromas, but also to the development of accessories and small items too! So those useful accessories could come out already in the autumn of 2016 which offer great help for river fishing. I am holding two feeders in my hands which proved their right for their existence, especially for the autumn-time, river fishing conditions on the Danube.

One of them is our Maggot River, while the other one is the Method River feeders. Of course both come in several different sizes up to 200 gram weight, in order to stop in even the greatest currents! Useful Small Parts From the useful small accessories I would like to highlight two products now, which were produced especially to make anglers’ job easier. One of them is the SpéciMethod Rig. This is being manufactured in Hungary, and so we proudly indicated this on the packing as well… This is a ready rig that consists of a hook with a bait sting tied on an 8 centimetres long braided leader line. While the other one is such a bait sting equipped with a silicone ring, for which there is no need for a bait floss. After tearing off from its stem, we have nothing else to do than to lace it on to our favourite hook, and we can enjoy all the advantages of fishing with bait stings already! Of course this also comes in three different sizes. New Fishing Lines The colourful monofil main lines are getting more and more popular among feeder anglers as well.

Considering these demands, we came out with these two new really colourful lines! It is very important why we chose these two colours, it is apparent that one of them is blue and the other one is red, because I asked a clear question on my Facebook page in which I was interested in anglers responses, what colour lines would they like to see most in the assortment of the Haldorádó palette?! The majority of votes clearly arrived for these two colours, thus besides the traditional dark coloured lines, you will find two new coloured lines in the Haldorádó product assortment from 2017. One of them will be called Blue Feeder, while the other one will be the Red Feeder. But the line of new products does not end here, since a Fluorocarbon named monofil line came out too, which is truly made of Fluorocarbon material, and it will be available from 0,14 mm to 0,35 mm. Thus its smaller sizes will serve well for hook lines in case of extreme sensitive feeder fishing, its medium thick sizes will be good for main lines, while the thickest, 0,25-0,35 mm wide ones will be ideal for monofil shock leader lines too, on such waters where the use of braided shock leader lines or main lines is forbidden! Prixi Predatory Fish Aroma Spray Beside the boilie and feeder products, from year 2017, the Haldorádó products assortment broadens with new aromas developed for predatory fish.

This product line comes under the name of PRIXI Predatory Fish Aroma Spray, and it has 6 different flavours. Zoli, what was the basic conception of this product, what idea engendered them? Those who know me know it very well that I always turn towards the Danube with great love and dedication, this is the river where I am after bream fish and predatory fish too. I noticed during fishing for predatory fish, and I realized this only later, that many times I had “bite-like” happenings during my fishing, but still, I did not manage to achieve such action to which I would have been able to strike. So I started to think about what I should change in order for me to be more successful, or to be able to exchange these careful finicky tiny bites – or how should I put this – these tiny tremors, signs, into real bites! We can owe a good solution to such an observation that we experienced during feeder fishing. I use the plural because this happened not only to me, to you, but also to many of our friends, colleagues, anglers that while we were using the SpéciCorn bait, we manged to catch such predatory fish that we had not counted on.

At first we thought that this was just accidental, but after having rethought, discussed with one another, we came to the conclusion that this many random cases do not exist! We experienced that predatory fish react very well to certain tastes and aromas! This can mean a tiny plus that provokes the attack stimulus in the predator. We established the assortment according to these experiences, which I introduced in detail in my movie filmed at Lake Balaton! Behold the Haldorádó Prixi aroma range, which we developed for fishing for predatory fish. The range consists of 6 members, 2 for catfish, 2 for pikes, and 2 for zanders. Let’s have a look at them one-by-one! "Catfish 1" is a fish flavour, "Catfish 2" is a Belachan-fermented crayfish taste. This is a highly smelly, piquant aroma! There are “type 1” and “type 2” of the pike aromas as well. “Pike 1” is fish-buttery acid, “Pike 2” is fish-clam flavoured. And here are the two protagonists of yesterday’s fishing, the “Zander 1” and “Zander 2” aromas.

From these, type one is fish-octopus flavoured, and the second one is garlic. Have you thought that the garlic flavoured aroma combination would bring the first fish? Well, to be honest, I would have voted for this one, the fish flavoured aroma. Huh, this is a very smelly stuff! This is stinking, indeed! The use of the aroma is awfully simple, we spray it onto the lure from close, then turn the bait a little bit, we let it dry for a few second… And we can cast it already! Since the aroma is very dense and sticky, thus it taste and scent will be perceptible on our lures even after several casts. Besides this we can also use it for the extra flavouring of live and dead baits! We can use it for fish fillets, leech, worm, anything! We used these two aromas alternately yesterday. Tamás, which one was the winner for you? For me, I had a huge strike on the intense garlic aromatized lure… And I caught a very nice zander with it! I got this! What do you feel? Well, this will be quite a good zander! Should I prepare the landing net? Yes! Wohoo, excellent! I will not lift it, so that it can remain in the water as long as possible.

Good! Well, let’s see it! Wonderful little zander! Wow, how nice teeth it has got! Thank you for your attention! Choose those products which are most sympathetic for you from the Haldorádó 2017 offer, and I wish you to catch more and bigger fish with them as never before! .

Cereal Docks: un impianto CHP da 4,4 MW e caldaia DUPLEX – English Subtitles

Cereal Docks, an Italian company through and through, has been operating on the domestic market since 1983 and is a leading partner in the primary sector of agricultural commodity processing, bringing together the worlds of industry and agriculture. Today, Cereal Docks is a leading Italian industrial group processing cereals such as wheat and maize, and oil seeds, such as soya, rape and sunflower, for the food industry, for industrial and technical purposes and for the production of biofuels. It is the main harvester and stocker on the Italian market, with an annual processing capacity of 1,000,000 tons of raw material, thanks to a total storage capacity of over 500,000 tons. In line with the 3 areas of its payoff – Agriculture, Food and Environment, Cereal Docks has gained a reputation in recent years as a leading champion of the green economy and environmental sustainability, choosing to diversify its commitment to renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel for transport, and electricity from cogeneration plants, biomasses and photovoltaics.

At its Porto Marghera site, which has just undergone a major revamp, the need to choose a cogeneration plant was due, first and foremost, to the need to efficiently meet a considerable amount of the site's energy requirements, using a high performance engine, which, among other things, also enables the company to take part in the energy efficiency certificates scheme. A company like ours is energy-hungry because, to process raw materials, it uses large amounts of electricity and thermal energy with consequent and relative environmental and economic impact, that then affects the production cost of finished products. The importance of using cogeneration comes from wanting and needing to minimise impact. The plant behind us is an electric 4,400 kilowatt hours plant, and was chosen based on estimated maximum loads of electrical absorption, to make the plant autonomous from this point of view. In our specific case, with the right estimate, we're talking of electricity production, when fully operational, of over 30 million electric kilowatt hours per year, while from a thermal view point, energy requirements, converted into equivalent natural gas, are close to 16,500,000 standard m3 per year, which in this case is covered by a cogeneration efficiency of approximately 15-20%.

At our site, electricity is used for different purposes, from handling solids and liquids – we're talking about transport and pumping – to powering all machines used in the production process, as well as general site services. Thermal energy is also used to a certain extent throughout the process: starting with the heating of seeds in the first part of the production process up to the final stages, when the flours produced are desolventized and dried, and oil is distilled. At this point, we should mention the important economic benefits of using cogeneration. Without looking at the economics of it in detail, the most important figures are an annual saving of 4,000 tons for CO2 quotas produced and a greater global energy efficiency, such as the 17 kilos of steam per m3 of gas used produced by the Duplex, which were suggested as target figures during the decision-making stage – when we decided whether or not to go ahead with the investment – and were then confirmed in the first few months of plant operation.

Lastly, this greater efficiency will produce a return from the economic investment in less than two years. When fully operational, Cereal Docks can produce over 30 megawatts of electricity, thus guaranteeing energy self-sufficiency, along with the highest standards of safety and environmental compatibility. Our combined operation Duplex boiler has been at this Cereal Docks plant, at Porto Marghera, for more than two years. The Duplex boiler was designed to combine in a single body a flue gas recovery generator with a traditional flame generator to meet the plant's thermal requirements as fully as possible. With this particular type, an independent flue gas path is assigned to the cogenerator, so it can work independently of the burner being turned on. Similarly, the burner does not require the presence of the cogenerator, making the two sections entirely autonomous. The recovery section keeps the cogenerator constantly hot and reactive.

In this way, as soon as steam production required by facilities exceeds the steam available from recovered energy, the burner intervenes to make up the missing part with a high level of reaction, without being affected by delays due to thermal lag. In this case, flue gas from a 4.4 electric megawatts GE Jenbacher engine, model 624, is conveyed to the recovery part, while the flame side has a section that can produce 10 tons/hour of steam. The burner has extremely low NOx emissions, a zirconium oxide probe to regulate O2 in the flue gas, and also has an inverter on the fan to guarantee perfect combustion, even at very low operating loads. The two circuits both have economizers, to lower flue gas temperatures as much as possible, thus obtaining very high returns. All Duplex boilers have been designed to meet the different needs of customers, who are given the utmost assistance from the design stage right up to equipment start-up at the plant. Siat's mission, for more than 70 years, has been to guarantee its customers quality and reliability, at all times, through its expertise and strong spirit of innovation.


23. Renewable Energy Policies

Today, I want to continue talking about energy futures and alternative choices that we have to face. And I think about this as a problem of being on the horns of a quad-lemma. And after I put this slide together, I was on my way to lecture this morning, I was saying to myself it's not really a quad-lemma, the analogy being a dilemma. It really has many more dimensions to it. But the way that it's being characterized to the public by politicians and those that are concerned about energy futures is predominately a choice between renewables and existing production capacity with respect to fossil fuels, particularly coal, and also our nuclear future that we discussed last week. But the topic that really does not make it onto the agenda, which is one that I think is crucial, is energy efficiency and what we could achieve by altering our patterns of consumption.

And I think as well, our capacity to read the energy demands of our own daily behaviors in the marketplace and in our daily lives make it extremely difficult to do that. So that today, I want to concentrate predominately on the problem of renewables, but also specifically talk about wind energy. So the National Academy of Sciences prepared a publication that you read, hopefully, up on the Classes server for this week, on the potential of renewables, particularly wind and solar. And solar and wind, they concluded, renewable resources offer significantly larger total energy potential than do other domestic renewable resources. Solar intensity obviously varies across the nation. The land-based solar resource exceeds by several thousand-fold present annual U.S. electrical energy demand. So wind is capable is providing at least ten percent to twenty percent, and in some regions of the country, potentially higher percentages of current electrical energy demand.

Think about installed capacity. In the world, Germany is clearly the leader in terms of megawatt production, but also percentage of their total electrical energy demands at about twenty-three, twenty-four percent. The U.S. follows in second at about eighteen percent, then Spain, India, China, Denmark. But this ranking is shifting quite rapidly, particularly in China and India and other rapidly developing parts of the world. Well, there was a statute that was passed back in 2005 that has really provided a lot of incentive, economic incentive to the private sector and to government agencies as well to think about new forms of providing energy, particularly from renewable resources. So income from activity may be excluded from gross income and not taxed if it's expended on renewable energy facilities.

Income may be taxed at a lower rate. The expense from the activity may be deducted more quickly. And those of you that filed your income taxes last week probably do not itemize your deductions. But deductions are set up in ways that you may depreciate property over different lengths of time. You may be able to depreciate a car, for example, over eight or ten years or a truck over that period of time, a house is thirty-two years, and other kinds of products that you might buy. You could depreciate those fully in the first year, meaning that you can get a total deduction on its value during the year that you purchased it. So that these expenses may be eligible for tax credits as well. A deduction is different than a tax credit. A deduction is an itemization that you would use to reduce your total estimated or adjusted gross income, whereas a tax credit would be a reduction in your taxes at the end of your return. Most people would favor taking a tax credit, it would be more to their advantage. So that these production tax credits that came into being in 2005 really have been quite successful, as is demonstrated. There were previous production credits back in 1999 and 2001 and 2003.

And then they expired at the end of those years. So that if you can see this chart, you can see the rather dramatic decline in the populations taking advantage of these credits. There is a business solar tax credit that offers a thirty percent tax credit for the purchase of equipment that produces solar electricity. Business fuel cell credits are available that are produced even using chemicals that are created by fossil fuels. There's a residential efficient property credit, which is a personal tax credit for eligible technology, such as water heaters, furnaces, boilers, heat pumps, central air conditioners, building insulation, windows, doors, and roofs. In my income taxes this year, I installed a new energy efficient water heater that I was able to take a tax credit of thirty percent of $2000, which is a substantial savings. Also, many states are acting on their own. And a topic that we've discussed repeatedly in the course is if you're thinking about trying to change behavior, what level of government is the appropriate government to establish law or policy? And the federal government has been clearly behind the eight ball.

They've been delinquent or neglectful of passing renewable energy standards and creating incentives in a way that really had a strong influence on renewable energy production relative to particularly fossil fuel production. So states have jumped into this problem by creating their own renewable energy portfolio standards. So for example, Massachusetts has a standard that is targeting fifteen percent renewable of their total energy demand by 2020. Ohio is twenty-five percent by 2025, New Mexico is twenty percent by 2020. California is 20 percent by 2010, and Washington is fifteen percent by 2020. So that these are legally binding standards and the states are required to figure out how to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels while increasing their reliance on renewable sources. So if you look at the problem of wind and you think about its distribution in the nation, Texas, perhaps not surprisingly, has the largest current installed capacity, almost 9,000 megawatts, followed by Iowa, California, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington, New York, Colorado, Illinois, and then Kansas.

You can also see the effect in this graph of the recession on installation of wind-provided electricity. So 2008 was far higher in new installations than 2009, so that this industry also is subject to the same kinds of limitations as any other sector. The cost of wind and transmission that is economically available might be broken into two different categories, onshore and offshore. It's quite obviously more expensive to develop further offshore. And the less expensive areas are those that are closest to the coastline. And what we see, we'll see a case in a few moments known as Cape Wind that is being proposed for Nantucket Sound. And the advantage obviously is that this is in federal territory so that no private property needs to be purchased, so that the quantity available offshore is believed to be just about the same as onshore. But the difficulty of getting a wind project off the ground on private property, as we'll see in a few moments, compared to offshore is really quite significant. So many people are now arguing for a twenty percent target by 2030 as a goal for wind-based energy.

If we choose this as a target, how do we get there? And what would be the influence on our use of alternative sources of energy? So if we have no new wind, you can see in this chart then our reliance on natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, and current wind would look something like this, with wind in the green. But a twenty percent wind scenario would predominately cause us to reduce our reliance on coal, but also some of our reliance on natural gas and nuclear. And why nuclear? Well, because many of the reactors are going to be approaching the end of their license periods. And many of them, as we discussed last week, are beyond their thirty to forty-year licensing period. So we're going to be phasing out nuclear, and depending upon the incentives for investment in new nuclear plants, the future growth is going to be impeded, not just by the extraordinary capital costs and the incremental cost of securing loans for nuclear, given its uncertainty.

But also, the problems of simply the amount of time it takes to build a nuclear plant. If we rely more heavily on wind, we need to think about how to get transmission facilities, transmission lines, in close proximity to the key sources of wind. So that obviously, as you look at the United States, you find wind capacity varies geographically. The coastal areas, Washington, Oregon, California, the East Coast and the Gulf Coast are the predominant sites for offshore development. And the Midwestern United States is the predominant location for development in non-coastal areas. And this creates a problem, particularly for the Midwest, because the Midwest is not a population center in the nation. So that transmissions needed to relieve congestion in the existing system to improve system reliability for all customers, to increase access to lower-cost energy, but also to access new and remote generation resources. So that if the twenty percent scenario by 2030 is followed, this is going to have a very significant effect on Co2 emissions from the electricity sector. So that this is thought of as a really important type of investment.

Now siting often creates an enormously complex set of rules and regulations that have to be followed in order to gain permits from the federal government, state governments, and local governments. The predominant concerns about development include visual impacts, property value impacts, effects on local wildlife and habitat, turbine or rotor noise and land use, potential effects on adjacent land uses. So wind generation is, for example, responsible for about 0.003 percent of human-caused avian mortality, particularly among passerines and bats. And bat mortality has been found to be higher than expected, but only in certain areas of the world, in certain high elevation zones, mountain peaks, and also mountain passes. So that these are the predominant concerns that cause litigation. People are also worried about the amount of area that it's going to take in order to reach this objective of twenty percent by 2030.

And the actual footprint that has been measured and is being used by the proponents of wind energy is really quite small. So total acreage of about fifteen million acres, roughly about the size of Rhode Island or Anchorage. So that the deceptive aspect of that statistic is that the conflict that surrounds this is not generated by the site development and the amount of area, the land area or the ocean area that has to be disturbed in order to put the facilities in, it's generated by its visibility, predominantly by people's impressions that I find to be really quite curious. I was driving to work this morning and admiring the wind turbine that was just put up over here next to the Q-Bridge, and was thinking about that and thinking about people's acceptance or preferences to view landscapes without towers generally. And as I kind of surveyed the landscape quickly, I was looking at the old coal-fired power plant next to the Q-Bridge, then I was looking at the transmission lines that lie next to it.

I was looking at the bridge itself. Really an industrialized landscape. Probably not a good thing to say to people here for Yale Bulldog Days. There are very beautiful parts of New Haven and the university is a central source of New Haven's beauty. But that part of New Haven is not, it's one of the most industrialized zones in Connecticut. But there stands this new wind turbine, gleaming white. And actually, it's dwarfed by other stacks, smokestacks and the transmission lines nearby. But people have problems with towers generally, and I was wondering about that. And I've worked on tower siting problems in the past. And I used the example when we had the lecture on land preservation of the controversy over the Olympic Games in northern New York where the ninety- and seventy-meter ski jump were proposed that almost brought the Olympic Games to a halt because of threatened litigation by the Sierra Club. And the aversion there was the loss of the sense of a natural landscape. And this is very much a prominent part of the argument on the part of landowners in the coastal area that looks out over Nantucket Sound.

They're worried about the view. They're worried about the visibility. Somehow, they think it's going to diminish the sense of naturalness of that landscape, and that's provoked their litigation. So that there are other kinds of towers that we seem to accept, but it may be a function of whether or not we can get up into the tower to take a look. Many people up in Lake Placid eventually accepted a 300-foot tower as a ski jump that was immediately adjacent to a wilderness area. But part of the fascination was well, this is for sport, but it also is going to give the opportunity to create an observation deck that people could go up to. I was thinking about other towers that we seem to readily accept in more urbanized environments, residential towers, office buildings, or even the Eiffel Tower. So that what is it about towers and our sense of naturalness that provokes this kind of reaction? I've also worked on communication towers and electrical transmission lines that demand high towers. And these are commonly fought with great energy just as people are fighting the wind turbines. So that that would be the subject of a great senior essay, by the way, if anybody is looking around for one next year.

Think about also the nature of property rights to wind and to solar radiation. So does the developer, for example, have the right to block access to a resource such as wind or solar radiation or water, if you live upstream and you decide you want to put a dam in the river? Or sand, remember the shifting sands on barrier islands, and remember, if you fly out of New Haven over the coastline and you see these groins that are set up to trap sand as it moves along the coastline. And that causes a sand deficit downstream so that the person that lives next to you has to build a groin so he can catch sand to prevent his shoreline from eroding. The same basic principle here. So that if I build a structure, perhaps a high rise building that blocks your access to wind or even if I build a high rise building and it blocks your access to solar radiation, do you have the right to take me to court and either to prevent the development or do I have the right to demand that you compensate me for my property loss in value? Well common law, law passed by courts, is really unclear on the matter unless there's clear and malicious intent.

So unlike underground minerals, no one can extract wind or solar radiation from your property without your consent. Now, I want you to think back about the lecture several weeks ago when I considered the Horse Whisperer out in Wyoming and the extraordinarily rapid development of coal bed methane gas being extracted because the federal government sold off the underlying property rights to private corporations who then basically had the right to transfer their production equipment to build towers on people's ranches, on their private lands. So the story was the Horse Whisperer woke up to construction crews bulldozing roads over their property. And outraged, thought that he had the right to call the police and stop the development, when he didn't, because those gas extraction companies had purchased the rights legitimately from the government. Well, in this case are the wind or solar radiation rights similarly owned as common property by the federal government? And the answer is no.

So that you would have the opportunity to prevent somebody from coming onto your land and building a wind turbine. But kind of an interesting comparison here, the way that law is structured to allocate common property rights to the private sector for energy development. So think about wind capacity and the desirability of different areas of the country, and also think about the nature of private development in the coastal zone. And I remember the California oil spills and how the tar and the oil would wash up on the beaches. And it was kind of interesting, you'd go for a run on the beach and you get back to your house or wherever you were staying and your feet are covered by tar. Even today in some parts of California, they're covered by tar from the Santa Barbara oil spills back in the 1970s. So that these tend to be highly developable properties, highly valued property.

And if they are the site of residential structures, you're guaranteed to have a fight for any significant offshore development. So there's an interesting kind of coincidence here of high-end property, people that are likely to have values that are instinctively to protect the coastal zone as well as to protect the naturalness of the views from their private property. So that this conflict is the source of litigation and also legislation. Here are the top ten states for wind energy potential. The last slide I showed you was top ten states for current generating capacity. So Texas, Kansas, Montana and Nebraska, Midwestern states and Texas particularly in the coastal as well, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Wyoming, Oklahoma, New Mexico. So very interesting that these have the highest capacity, but they tend not to be close to where the majority of people in the U.S.

live. I'm going to jump ahead here. So here is the scenario, offshore development versus land-based development. The projections are that the majority of new capacity will come from onshore or land-based development that creates all the political conflict because of questions about how to manage private property rights. So that if you look at the quantity available offshore and onshore and you look at the relative wind speed in these areas, you see that the land-based is going to likely generate more gigawatts than the offshore. So what are the key benefits here? Well, benefits to the environment, benefits in terms of reduced air pollution from fossil fuels, and there's no question about the fact that we'll be facing increased coal generation, coal power generation, that is going to give us problems with particulate matter, sulfur and nitrogen oxides.

And remember that statistic that I told you last week, that this is a really important statistic, particularly relative to the health effects of coal. Between 30,000 and 60,000 people are estimated in a variety of peer-reviewed and I think highly defensible studies, they suffer premature death in the United States every year due to coal production. So that you compare that to nuclear, you compare that to mortality estimates from wind or solar development, and there really is no contest. In terms of climate, the reduced CO_2 emissions are estimated to be about 825 million metric tons per year if the twenty percent of our electricity is produced by 2030. Reduced water, reduced coal use, reduced cost per kilowatt hour, and also the increased tax revenues that'll be generated to local communities. So if you build a wind turbine on your property, you're going to have to pay the local government property taxes on your revenue. And also you're going to be paying the federal government taxes on the revenue. So the future of wind, as I mentioned earlier, is likely to have the greatest influence on our reliance on coal, but could also affect our reliance on nuclear.

There's a lot of concern among environmentalists over avian mortality. So it's important to think about the different causes of avian mortality, and it's quite striking that mortality from buildings and windows, and these are avian deaths, so that you see that the majority are being caused by birds flying into buildings and windows, followed by housecats, high transmission lines, vehicles, pesticides. Actually, the pesticide estimate is low. I worked on a panel that addressed the question about several of the largest, most produced insecticides in the world, and they are responsible for very significant avian losses. Communication towers and wind turbines, if they reach this twenty percent by 2030, are projected to be really quite low. Now, that doesn't mean that we don't pay attention to them, and legally we have an obligation to do so. And that's because of the Endangered Species Act. And this will come to play when we talk in a few minutes about the Nantucket Sound case that might influence the piping plover that nests in the adjacent shorelines.

Also, there are concerns about noise, how noisy are they compared to other sources of noise? So if you look at jet aircraft at 250 meters, you look a pneumatic drill, you look at a truck, an office, a car at forty meters, then you find a wind-power plant at 350 meters would be about equivalent to a quiet bedroom or perhaps a car operating at forty miles an hour that drives by a hundred meters away. So the implications of this are kind of interesting in terms of managing noise. How might you do that? Well, you could think about using zoning. You could demand very large lot zoning. And remember the case in the Adirondacks where one new house for perhaps forty percent of the private land in the Adirondacks, forty percent of two and a half million acres. So one new house requires forty-three acres up in the Adirondacks. So what would it take you to get a buffer between the turbine location on land and a separation distance that would reduce the decibel level on adjacent properties? Well, you could imagine designing a zoning ordinance that would allow you to control noise on adjacent lands in that fashion.

Well, it's important for you to think too about the structure of the U.S. utility industry. There are about two hundred investor-owned utilities in the nation, seventy large municipal and federal or state systems, fifty rural generation and transmission cooperatives, and three thousand local distribution companies. Think also about who are the dominant consumers of energy in the United States. Turns out that the federal government is the largest single consumer of electricity in the world. The federal agency electricity consumption in 2005 was more than 55,000 gigawatt hours, which would equate to approximately eighteen gigawatts of wind capacity. So federal agencies were encouraged to meet an executive order goal of two point five percent of site electricity from new renewable energy sources by the end of 2005. By the way, we've not talked about executive orders in the class, but I'm going to pause here just to point out that law may be established at very different levels of government, state, local, federal. But also it may be established by regulation, so EPA has the legal authority to establish regulations.

And the Executive Branch of the government, the office of the President, has the legal authority to establish executive orders that must be complied with within the federal government by federal agencies. So that in this case, to meet the ordered goal of two point five percent, this goal was actually exceeded with a final tally of about six point nine percent of electricity consumed was derived from renewable sources. So that's kind of an interesting idea. So figure out who are the largest consumers and then set goals for them and then challenge them, set up a competition. And we've seen that competitive spirit work here in the college as well. So that colleges are trying to not just reduce their waste and to increase their rate of recycling, but they're also trying to reduce their energy consumption.

So that now the federal agencies are all challenged to try to figure out how they can increase their renewable component of their energy consumption portfolios. There's also the concept of renewable energy credits and renewable energy certificates. And these are tradable non-tangible energy commodities in the U.S. that represent proof that one megawatt hour of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource, which would include solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass or energy derived from hydrogen fuel cells. Now, I want to talk for a few moments about the problem up in Nantucket Sound. And this is a project, Cape Wind, that was initiated in 2001 when this company decided that they wanted to put up about 130 turbines in Nantucket Sound.

And the state of Rhode Island, by the way, has taken a very different path, not just reacting to a developer's proposal, but Rhode Island has taken the initiative to zone parts of its offshore territory. And they have designated a company, a developer, as a preferred developer, and have now proposed about a $1.5 billion farm in eastern Rhode Island. So states could basically be reactive in their approach to developing wind energy. Just wait for the developers to show up. But Rhode Island is taking a very different approach to this, so that they are in a way acting as the developer themselves. So if you take a look at this wind map of the southern New England coastline, you see that there are areas, particularly off of Rhode Island and particularly here in Nantucket Sound, which are really quite suitable in terms of the amount of wind energy that is available for development. So the Cape Wind proposal would involve, as I said, 130 different turbines. On average, it would provide about seventy-five percent of the entire electrical requirements for the Cape and the islands.

So I don't know if this is going to work. But let me see if I can show you a YouTube video here, just briefly. Here is a scene that shows a boat of sightseers just moving through a wind farm off the coast of Denmark, just to give you a sense of what it would be like. Now, there are questions here about navigation. There are questions about interference with others' property rights. So offshore waters, if you're beyond the three-mile jurisdictional limit then it becomes federal lands. If you're between the mean high water mark and the three-mile zone, that is state land. And what this means is because these power lines will have to lie beneath the surface as they run from the turbines back to the mainland, that they clearly will cross from federal lands into state lands. And then they will cross private lands. Or in some instances, they will require dredging of wetland areas up onto local government property.

So that local, state, federal, and private property rights are all at play in this case. So that there are also issues that arise from conflicts with fishermen who may have the right to lobster in this area. Perhaps they use a form of fishing that drags over the bottom. These are known as the Nantucket Shoals, known to be former clamming areas. The Nantucket area, the Buzzard's Bay area, has a long and rich history as being important as a commercially viable fishing area. So that there are also potential conflicts here with air rights with respect to flight paths, so that the Federal Aviation Administration is also involved. So that this is really a legal quagmire in a way, it's a cobweb of rights that touch off jurisdiction on the part of three different levels of government and many local jurisdictions and different state and federal agencies as well.

So the location in the Sound that is being proposed is pretty much between and to the north of Nantucket, which lies over here on the right side on the bottom, and Martha's Vineyard, roughly five to six miles offshore. Now, this has become most controversial because that is close enough so that the towers would be visible from shoreline areas. So they've completed six years of environmental studies of the surface and subsurface geology, wind, tide, waves, sediment transport patterns, benthic infauna and shellfish resources, fish habitat, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine mammals and threatened and endangered species. And what's interesting about this is also that they've been quite successful. Cape Wind, the corporation, has been successful in federal court litigation. So that all of the permitting on the part of local governments and the state government, is now complete. This also fell under the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act that demanded that an environmental impact statement be prepared. And this was done with great care and it also pointed to all of the possible effects on fish, on wildlife, on endangered species, but also was clear in identifying conflicts between the developers and the wind turbines with the various interest groups that currently have rights to use the area.

So that state permitting status is complete as of the Fall of 2008. And there's a Facility Siting Board in Massachusetts. There is a state environmental quality permitting process that was required to be complied with. There also are state wetlands laws in Massachusetts that are particularly protective of coastal wetlands so that all of these permits have been now granted. The federal permitting status is managed by the Minerals Management Service, and that sits within the Department of the Interior. So that a favorable draft impact statement was prepared in 2004 and then it released a favorable final Environment Impact Statement on January 15 of 2008. Favorable comments on the part of different organizations, including the Natural Resources Defense Council, known for being very protective of coastal areas around the nation and being very concerned about issues of climate change. "Cape Wind (NRDC argued) is to our knowledge the largest single source of supply-side reductions in CO_2 currently proposed in the United States and perhaps the world.

" And the Department of Energy assistant secretary said, "As the first shallow-water offshore project under review in the United States, utility-scale projects like Cape Wind are important to our national interests and a crucial first step to building a domestic globally competitive wind supply." And another former U.S. Department of Energy assistant secretary and now Massachusetts Secretary of Environmental Officers, Susan Tierney commented, "The Cape Wind draft environmental impact statement is thorough, it's detailed. It identifies and analyzes and describes a wide array of impacts with great care, detail, and comprehensiveness. Indeed, it's one of the most thorough that I've ever seen." So wide support among a variety of different agencies.

Now, right now the Cape Wind Company is awaiting a decision on the part of Ken Salazar, who is the Secretary of the Interior. And Ken Salazar is responsible for the National Park Service that also sits within the Department of the Interior. And you might ask the question, well, what does the Park Service have to do with permitting for a facility such as this? Well, the Park Service curiously is responsible because of the National Historic Preservation Act. This requires that historic facilities in the United States be identified and ranked for their relative importance, and if they're found to be of national significance, they are eligible to be placed on the National Registry of Historic Places. So that the Secretary of the Interior– I'm going to have to jump ahead here for a second.

The Secretary of the Interior had the ability to decide that either the national significance of this as Native American burial grounds was so high that it would be designated and therefore this wind farm would not be allowed to go forward. And he's committed to reaching a conclusion about this within the next two weeks, so pay attention to the press, it will turn out to be quite interesting. So the Secretary went out and took a look at the site several months ago and has held a variety of press conferences over the past couple of weeks that demonstrate that he is really on the edge, not knowing whether or not he should be pursuing the national objective of increasing the renewable energy portfolio of the United States. I'm going to have to jump ahead here, because I've got way too much material, so forgive me. I wanted to talk just a moment about comparing this case to other kinds of problems that we've discussed in class or that you may be familiar with, and the idea of the government role of providing either credits or subsidies.

I want you to think about the relative historical absence of federal subsidy of renewable energy sources and compare that to the subsidies that have occurred for the oil industry. And perhaps the greatest subsidy that I can think of is in part a reflection on what happened when a major automobile company, tire company and oil companies in the early 1900s went around to different cities and purchased up the trolley lines, the tram lines. They purchased them up as a way of diminishing the public's ability to use public transit and to develop an increased reliance on automobiles. Now think also about the national cost to maintain and build or rebuild our national highway system. And where would the auto industry and the oil industry be in the United States if that were not accomplished by our tax dollars? So now I think about the highway system as being really an enormous subsidy for the oil industry as well as for the auto industries.

Think also about how we have in the past year subsidized the auto industry and banks as well, so that how do we come to choose to subsidize certain private ventures and not others? We have a clear problem that we need to deal with there. I also want you think about a variety of different conclusions with respect to land use regulation. We've looked at land use regulation and we've looked at problems of controlling private behavior, taking away rights from individuals on private land. And I want you to think about the opportunities for a variety of new land use regulation and subdivision regulation schemes that might zone lands for wind farms, so that if you think back on the Adirondack Park zoning scheme, where they did zone certain areas for industrial growth. They zoned other areas for agricultural growth, food farms, that why not the concept of zoning for wind farms? Now, you could argue that well, if you're going to zone for wind farms, you need to think about how you're going to manage the externalities that might fall onto adjacent landowners.

Well, that could be dealt with, as I mentioned a few moments ago, in a variety of ways. And these might include offering development credits to adjacent landowners to increase density elsewhere. In other words, transferable development rights might be a component of these land use regulations. So that the adjacent landowners are actually given a bonus, they're given a development right that would be assignable to an area that was zoned to receive increased density. These would be bankable, so they wouldn't have to physically develop it. They could put the credit into a bank and somebody else, another developer who wanted to build in that high-density zone, could purchase that credit. So there's a potential here to tie zoning for wind farms to transferrable development rights. Require minimum acreages, a hundred acres, two hundred acres, a thousand acres, whatever it would be. And regulate lot dimensions. So you could imagine a thousand acres in a relatively narrow strip of land going on for miles.

But you could also think about how you might design lot dimension requirements in a way that would ensure that you would have a separation distance from the turbine to the adjacent landowners that might sense a fence. We also need to think carefully about zoning for new transmission lines. And zoning in corridors has always been a part of local and state land use regulations. So think about where the corridors are right here in New Haven. We have a rail corridor that also serves as a highway corridor. It's also a power line corridor. So that building new transmission lines in areas where rail and highway corridors already exist make a lot of sense. If we have to buy new land to create new transmission lines, that's going to be an extraordinarily expensive venture. And think about again this problem of having the production being located in large distance away from the points of higher population densities and consumption.

So another conclusion that I want you to walk away with here is with respect to property rights. So that offshore development is going to be much easier to accomplish than onshore development. Now here we are in 2010, the Cape Wind developers made their proposal in 2001. They've wandered their way through this regulatory permitting process for nine years. There's a lesson there. The lesson has been followed in a variety of other regulatory contexts and it's called one-stop shopping, one-stop shopping for a permit. What if we had one renewable agency, renewable energy agency that had all of the authority to grant the permits? And yes, they would have to consult with state representatives, they would have to consult with local representatives. But a developer could go through this process perhaps in three or four years instead of nine years.

The capital carrying costs that are involved here when you're purchasing property and trying to figure out what state of technology you're going to apply, capital costs here are enormous and can be discouraging. I mentioned the coal bed methane issue and think distinctively about how that coal bed methane property right was allowed to be purchased by the private sector, whereas the wind property right, like the solar property right, is generally assigned with the surface lands. So who has the right to block wind? Who has the right to block solar radiation? And are these legitimate bases for civil actions as nuisances? Now, I'd like to close by having you think about damages and how we calculate damages.

And as you think about every case that we've discussed in this term, when we think about environmental effects, you should be thinking about the magnitude of the effect and you should be thinking about the distribution of the effect. So think about this comparison between nuclear power on the one hand and wind energy on the other. What are the adverse environmental effects from wind power likely to be? Well, we've gone through a variety of them, biological resources, land area that's going to be required. But they all pale in response to the problems associated with constructing and operating nuclear power plants and then figuring out what to do with the waste. And one way to think about distribution is just to think about how something spreads geographically. But think about distribution in a temporal way as well. So that the fact that the Environmental Protection Agency is required to develop a nuclear waste disposal plan to cover one million years for the management of the Yucca Mountain storage facility that has to do with the persistence of the radionuclides, particularly plutonium isotopes. I mean, think about that, the persistence of the problem over time is another way to consider distribution.

So the consideration of magnitude and distribution as well, by thinking about questions of equity, who are these damages going to fall onto? How should they be managed? And some people are much more capable of managing risk than other people are. So they can buy higher quality insurance than poorer people can. So once again, magnitude and distribution for a variety of different kinds of effects. So the effect in my opinion on wildlife and fish, on noise, on esthetics and vibration, on the shadow and flicker effects that are being studied, along with the vibration effects right here in the Yale Medical School. There is a claim, by the way, that these wind turbine farms create vibrations that you can't actually feel but they're strong enough if you are in close enough proximity to these fields to have your sleep disturbed.

And also on property values and on recreational access, these are the core points of contention. But compared to managing nuclear waste over hundreds of thousands of years, these seem like relatively minor issues. And I'd like to close with just one thought, and that is as you think about difficult tradeoffs such as this, I encourage you to consider the idea of reversibility. Reversibility is a concept that has been built into a variety of different laws. So that under many different statutes, the government is required to consider whether or not the effect is reversible. So plutonium, the creation of plutonium is not a reversible decision, given the length of persistence. The construction of a coal-fired power plant such as you see here in the upper left, yeah, that's reversible.

You could pull that apart. But if we look at our history of rehabilitation of damaged sites and industrial facilities in the nation, they tend not to be rebuilt because they're so highly contaminated. Think about the disassembly of a turbine farm or the disassembly of a solar generating facility such as this out in the New Mexico desert. These are easily disassembled. So just consider the idea of reversibility as you think about how these kinds of choices might be made. Okay. Well, that is the end of lecture twenty-three, and we'll wrap with a final lecture on Thursday. Thank you. .

Biofor: come trasformare i rifiuti in energia – English subtitles

We are at the Biofor Energia plant in Castelleone in the province of Cremona. This plant processes organic and agro-food waste. It was set up on the basis of a common initiative between the company SCRP SpA, of which I am the general manager – a company bringing together 53 municipalities in the Cremona area and the Provincial Authority of Cremona – as well as 3 farmers who have offered their land for the disposal of the products of this waste processing. This plant processes with around 30,000 tonnes of waste of various origins per year and as part of its process also uses over 60,000 cubic metres of slurry produced by the farms that are involved in the management of the plant. The advantage of this process is that the matter resulting from it is disposed of directly on the land of the farms involved. We have about 10% of inorganic waste which is sent to incinerators and landfills. The plant therefore integrates a technology that permits a closed cycle.

Waste is collected from the municipalities belonging to SCRP, and SCRP is an entirely public company which has made this investment together with the farmers. All this ensures the almost complete reuse of the organic material. The plant also uses material collected from the rest of the province as well as nearby provinces. The initiative offers an economic benefit to the municipalities that are taking part, because the material that they provide is at a lower price than the market price, and this ensures a direct benefit for the municipalities belonging to SCRP. The benefits to the environment are also evident: the quantity of material which is sent to landfills is minimum compared to the amount that is brought in. In addition, we obtain power from the production of biogas, and inject this power into the grid of the electric utility company ENEL, and used for domestic and industrial consumption. With the energy produced, we manage to supply power to a small town of over 10,000 inhabitants.

Therefore the plant is not particularly large, but nevertheless it offers a great benefit for the environment thanks to the reuse of waste..

Solbian Energy Flyer

Hello to everybody and welcome back to the last of the Solbian products review My name is always Samuele from the technical office Today we will speak about Energy Flyer our breakthrough device that allows a quick charge of tablet and smartphone it consists in an ALLinONE device, but miniaturized it is composed by four Sun Power high efficiency cells and on the back the electronic module engineerized and realized by Solbian The main difference by its big brother is in power development that device produces 13 watt another one is electronics, in fact as you can see, here is an USB port you will be able to recharge iOS or Android based smartphone and tablet this little motherboard rise efficiency and regulates recharging with MPTT boost algorithm Sometimes, people buy unbranded solar chargers online it can occur that are defective specially when the light is poor charge is slow and you must disconnect and reconnect the device with Energy Flyer that doens't happen because electronics manages all these aspects You need less than a hour to perform a complete smartphone recharge (e.

g. iPhone 6) a tablet recharge about in one hour electric characteristics are Voc 5V weight 300gr All rounded rubber frame with four holes on the edges that permit to hang it pn the back pack or window or car, for instance An other significant characteristic is efficiency that rise till 98% comparable to a home wall socket that's the reason why the charge is so quick The panel is incredibly resistant You will receive it in its dedicated box It's a retail market oriented product and an elegant box is mandatory! inside you will find its instruction manual you will find more informations and technical characteristics on its dedicated mini site As you can see here is EF on our office windows and it isn't directly exposed to sun green led is on and that means that cells are capturing energy electronics is ready to charge let's connect iPhone 6s as you can see by the "thunder" icon it's charging and the light on the EF is changed in red, that means that a decide is connected and charging Connecting a device and waiting for a half hour you EF will charge an empty battery to its 60-70% so in less than a hour the device will be completely charged That's all also for this time my personal greetings to the audience As usual, go to visit www. or facebook page Solbian Energie alternative. Greetings again from Samuele .

SunPower and Giulio Barbieri to Deliver Solar Carports to the Italian Residents

– SunPower e Giulio Barbieri per fornire Carports solari per il mercato residenziale italiano. SunPower ha collaborato con Giulio Barbieri per progettare la nuova pensilina fotovoltaica con formula "chiavi in mano" per il mercato residenziale italiano. Con questa collaborazione, Giulio Barbieri fornirà le pensiline in base alle specifiche del cliente, mentre SunPower installerà l'impianto fotovoltaico. Sulla copertura verranno installati 18, 24 o 32 moduli fotovoltaici con celle ad alta efficienza. L'impianto potrà fornire circa 5,9 kW a 10,5 kW di energia solare. Le pensiline Giulio Barbieri hanno ottenuto la certificazione CE. Canadian Solar ha ottenuto la certificazione OHSAS 18001, un organismo internazionale per la gestione della salute e della sicurezza dei lavoratori. A Canadian Solar si uniranno le fila di altre società di produttori di pannelli solari per lo più europee per avere questa prestigiosa certificazione. – Florida Power Light Company offrirà circa 15,5 milioni dollari in sconti ai primi arrivati, tra i clienti interessati all'installazione di impianti fotovoltaici in ambito residenziale ed industriale.

Questo programma di sconti è finanziato dalla Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) e mira a contribuire a ridurre il consumo energetico e la domanda di picco. Green Option Program Pacific Gas and Electric Company(PGE) propone un nuovo programma di energia pulita "Green Option" ai clienti che sceglieranno di essere forniti al 100 per cento di energia rinnovabile. Attualmente, PGE è già uno dei maggiori fornitori di energie rinnovabili negli Stati Uniti. Più del 50 per cento della sua elettricità proviene da fonti rinnovabili che sono o prive di emissioni di gas serra. Le città di Berkeley, Carmel, Davis, Hayward, Napa e San Jose, sosterranno il programma proposto e collaboreranno con PGE per rendere il programma un successo. La centrale nucleare di Susquehanna in Pennsylvania ha rivelato crepe.

La centrale è stata protagonista del più grave incidente nucleare della storia statunitense, avvenuto nel 1979 La PPL Corp sostituirà una fila di pale danneggiate della turbina presente nel primo reattore durante l'attuale interruzione di rifornimento e manutenzione. Anche il secondo reattore sarà chiuso e ispezionato dopo che il primo reattore riprenderà a funzionare. Il principale obiettivo è quello di operare sempre all'interno dell'impianto Susquehanna in modo da renderlo sicuro e affidabile per il lungo termine, e questi interventi di spegnimento e manutenzione sono in linea con i principi di sicurezza del PPL Corp per un corretto funzionamento dell'impianto. -.

Potential of Renewable Energy Technologies – Sustainable Energy – TU Delft

Hi everybody! I hope that you have learned to roughly estimate the potential of the most important renewable energy sources this week. Let’s go a little bit further and see how much sustainable energy is available and should be installed on a global scale . Most of our used energy is directly or indirectly powered by the sun. `in addition the earth itself can provide us with sustainable energy by the use of geothermal energy. To put these energy sources in perspective we will show the potential of all them in reference to the total global power demand of the world of has a 16 TW. This global power demand includes energy used for heating, transportation and industry, so it’s not only electricity. The power demand is derived from an averaged global energy consumption, Now, using the information from the International Energy Agency we will show the recoverable power of the energy sources we have discussed in the previous videos. Note that because this is recoverable power, a conversion factor is already applied in these numbers. Let’s start with Wind energy it has a potential between 25-75 TW easily enough to provide the entire world with sustainable energy.

But we have learned that wind energy has a low capacity factor because of seasonal and weather changes so we also need a baseload. The use of ocean thermal energy shortly mentioned earlier can provide a part of that with a contribution of 3-11 TW, if the technology is fully developed. Bioenergy has a potential of 2 to 6 TW and can contribute to a sustainable energy future the world — if — it does not significantly compete with food crops. Hydropower is already providing a big portion of our world's energy need with 1.2 TW, but has limited room to grow further. Its global potential is only 3 times that of the current installed capacity . Geothermal energywavepower and tidal energy can also provide a substantial portion of our needs. Maybe the potential of these energy sources shown here is smaller than you expected. Luckily we still have one more card to play: Solar Energy. If we would cover the entire land surface of planet earth with combined solar PV and heat systems ~ which of course is not realistic ~ we arrive at approximately 23.

000 TW, a power potential far greater than we'll ever need. Nevertheless, in the coming weeks we will discuss that not only one renewable source is the answer to our energy problems. Every sustainable energy source has its advantages and disadvantages. To further look into our renewable future we will evaluate the surface power density of all the sources we have treated. Although the earth is very big on a human scale, it is essential to look at the power density per unit area of our sources to get an idea how much land is needed. This table shows a range of densities that represent an average power density of all locations on earth and in is also averaged over time. This means that the units do not need an extra multiplication with a conversion factor or capacity factor. In addition We don’t take into account that some energy sources are not storable or peak demand on the grid. For hydropower there is a potential of 8 to 10 W per square meter of reservoir area and 0.

1-0.2 for the water catchment area. Wind is ranged for land and offshore installations. For solar we took a moderate average insolation of 4 kwh/day/m2 and an moderate efficiency of 15% to include free space between solar panels. For biopower we took a range from 0.1 to 0.3 W/m2 to include the most crops that can be used for energy generation. Note that wave power has a range of 20-30 KW per meter and not per square meter because the energy in a wave can only be harvested once, perpendicular to the direction it is moving. By now you must be wondering how much area is needed to power a substantial amount of energy with these renewable sources. A prediction is made for the electricity power demand in 2040 which is equal to 4.2 TW. Note, this is not the total energy demand, it is only the electricity power demand. On this map I’ll show you an estimation of the total area that is required per renewable energy source – to deliver this power. Note that the placement on the map is done randomly- so the calculations are not location dependent.

The only thing we have done, is divide the global power demand of 2040 by the power density of every energy source. The recoverable global potential of hydropower is not fully sufficient to meet this demand. This is caused by a lack of locations which have sufficient height difference. But, in case -there would be enough suitable area – it will take a total reservoir surface of – 420 thousand square kilometers and a catchment area of 21 million square kilometres to provide 4.2 TW. It is safe to say that this would be almost impossible to achieve. For wind power we need an area of 1.68 million square kilometres, comparable to the size of a country as turkey. For Solar PV the required area is moderate: only 140 thousand square kilometres. Bioenergy could have the potential to fully provide us with electricity, but it will need 20 million square kilometers.

This is 13% of all the land on the world and is already more than is used for agriculture. If Geothermal energy would have the potential to provide 4.2 TW ~ which it doesn’t ~ it would require an area which is bigger than the earth surface . What about Tidal. There are not enough locations with a suitable tidal fluctuation to meet the electricity demand of 2040. But if there would be enough suitable locations a tidal reservoir of 1.4 million kilometers would be required. If we take the same assumption for wave energy – we would need to place 168 thousand kilometers. This is about half the length of all the coastlines on earth. All these numbers represent a back of the envelop calculation but still can be considered as reasonable indications for the potential of these energy sources. It may also be clear by now that not a single energy source will meet our energy needs of the future, and that we have to combine these energy sources. Considering the energy density and the power potential of wind and solar energy, it shouldn't surprise you that the majority of the plants are wind and solar farms.

This week, I provided you with simple tools to calculate the potential of various energy sources. In the last weeks of this course – we will discuss the technology and system aspects of these renewable energy sources in more detail. Now, I challenge you to do these calculations for your country. I hope this exercise will provide you more insights in the challenges we are facing if we would like to become less dependent on fossil fuels..

High Performance Energy Management Case Study: Fitesa Washougal

Dave Rohrback: Energy conservation is very important to Fitesa. Steve Sundt: It's made us a lot more aware of what's going on in the plant now. JD Hisey: We're reducing our carbon footprint, so that's very important to us. Dave Rohrback: Being proactive makes us very competitive in a market that's extremely competitive. Dave Rohrback: Fitesa is a global, non-woven manufacturing company. If you don't know what nonwovens is, it's a polymer-based fabric and it goes in many different applications from baby diapers to medical garments, you know, the blue caps and gowns you see at the doctor's office. Even nowadays you go to the grocery store and instead of the plastic bags they give you a reusable bag. Well, that's made out of non-wovens. So we make the substrate and sell it to customers that produce the finished product.

We are the only non-woven plant on the West Coast. And a large percentage of our customer base is on the East Coast, so we pay a lot of freight to get our product, since it's so heavy, from the West Coast to the East Coast. Another unfortunate aspect is a lot of our competition resides on the east coast. So we have to do a lot of other things to remain competitive with our customers. So energy efficiency is one of that the main things that we do to reduce our overhead so we can offer the same materials to the same customers without a disadvantage. So it's really a huge deal to this plant not only from a competitive standpoint, but from a longevity standpoint. JD Hisey: Everything we do here is following the plan/do/check/act cycle, which is a continuous improvement cycle.

Dave Rohrback: The day-in and day-out activities that we do to be a profitable business fit right in to the HPEM program especially with our own metrics system here. JD Hisey: If you look overall at our last four years between larger capital projects and HPEM, we've saved about 29 percent on our electrical bills. In the last two years we've reduced our natural gas usage by 67 percent and our sewer outfall we've reduced by 90 percent. So those are all from using the HPEM tools and just paying attention to the business. Dave Rohrback: It's obvious a kilowatt of energy is going to save you money on the bottom line. The problem is organizing your efforts to go about it in a way where you get the biggest bang for the buck.

So that first project we did really opened our eyes to the opportunity that we had here. We achieved the energy savings that we had estimated we we're going to save. We got the incentive that was quoted to us from the energy company. That built a lot of confidence within my upper management and then it really kind of kept the ball rolling here at the facility because we started looking at all these different ideas. Doug Moore: Chillers that we were using were oversized, so they were using more power than we really needed and we went to smaller chillers that are more efficient as far as how they run. They only run when we need them. Gary Cantrell: We determined that our old HID lighting was inefficient, so we decided to go with a high-efficient motion sensor system.

So we installed some new lights, which included the fluorescent lighting and motion sensors with a reflective back. So it gave us more lumens and the bulbs last longer. JD Hisey: When we looked at the tools and the metrics that we were using for HPEM it was pretty obvious that we could use them for all of our other utilities: natural gas, water, sewer outfall, so we just expanded out to HPUM, which is high performance utility management. Dave Rohrback: We've achieved quite a bit of financial savings. The obvious is the reduction in energy costs but there's a lot of other ways that we achieve the savings from the HPEM program. The equipment's easier to maintain. There's less breakdowns; spare parts are easier to come by. We also have some systems that don't require certain chemicals any longer because of the upgrades of the equipment that we put in. Todd Amundson: Fitesa is a great example of what can be achieved through HPEM participation. They picked up that continuous improvement model to energy management and ran with it.

Dave Rohrback: Everyone wants to do something from an energy conservation standpoint but it's really not in an organized fashion and there's some training that goes along with that to learn how to do it properly. JD Hisey: In the last two years we've saved about a million kilowatt hours a year just from the HPEM projects. Doug Moore: Well, it's easier for us to tell now what the machinery's doing as far as we can watch it on a real-time basis instead of waiting month-to-month to see what our power usage is. We can look at it any time and see what we're using. Dave Rohrback: Clark PUD has been available to us every time we've needed some sort of answers about the process, the program. They really introduced it to us. Todd Amundson: There's no cost involved to the end-use facilities to participate. Dave Rohrback: From the measurement and verification standpoint, we get some very qualified people that come out to the plant, help you design projects, identify projects. Todd Amundson: It wouldn't have been possible without Clark Public Utilities. Dave Rohrback: Don't be afraid of the process or the time commitment. Gary Cantrell: We're doing helpful things for the environment.

Doug Moore: We're kind of the poster child now for our company. Todd Amundson: There's a lot of savings to capture out there that HPEM program participants can achieve. Dave Rohrback: You're saving on the energy up front—the kilowatts that you save. You're saving on the total project dollars from the BPA incentive that you get. You also get new equipment in your plant which reduces your downtime costs, your maintenance costs, repair cost. So the bigger question is why wouldn't you do it?.

World’s Largest Wind Farm | China’s Future MEGAPROJECTS: Part 6

By now you’re seeing the trend here: the world’s biggest city, the world’s longest canal, biggest airport, longest high speed rail network and underwater tunnel. So the fact that China is building the world’s largest Wind Power Farm too shouldn’t surprise you. The Gansu Wind Farm Project will produce 20 Gigawatts of power by 2020, and will cost nearly $20 billion to build. Turbines are going up at the staggering rate of 35 per day across the three areas that make up the power base. In 2012, Gansu’s capacity surpassed the total wind-generated-electricity produced by all of the United Kingdom, and it’s just the largest of six mega-wind farms currently under construction throughout China. But China isn’t embracing wind just to reduce its carbon emissions, it’s doing everything it can to simply keep the lights on. Some parts of the country with booming middle class populations suffer persistent electricity shortages because, just like us, people want refrigerators, dishwashers, washer and dryers, and computers in their homes, but there’s only so much energy to go around. So China’s State Council is pushing for an across-the-board renewable strategy to reduce its dependence on oil, coal and gas, the finite resources of the 20th century whose extraction and consumption are subject to constant geopolitical tensions.

Since 2013, China has led the world in renewable energy production, with a total capacity of 378 installed Gigawatts, coming from projects as wide-ranging as Gansu to hydroelectric power plants like the Three Gorges Dam, which spans the Yangtze River and is the world’s largest power station of any kind. In just the last 10 years, China has increased its solar panel production 100-fold to become the world’s leading manufacturer of the technology. With China now pumping more CO2 into the atmosphere than the number two and three emitting countries – the US and India – combined, it’s vital for the future of the planet that it continues using MegaProjects to create a lot more Megawatts of clean, green power. Thanks for watching. Click the like button to help share this video, it really helps me out. Until next time, for TDC, I’m Bryce Plank..

Webinar: Diagnosing inverter overload – by Johannes Boonstra

Today, I will tell you something about overload. Overload of inverters, of Multis and Quattros. What is an overload of an inverter? Well, basically, an overload of an inverter is when the current in an inverter is too high and because the current in the inverter is too high, it could damage the inverter, or it could damage the Multi or the Quatro, so basically that should be prevented. There are two overload situations: the first overload is that the current is just too high but the inverter is still able to remain at a certain voltage, so if you have a 230 volts inverter you still have 230 volts on the output but the current is just higher than what the unit expects for. It can also happen that the load is so high that the inverter is also not able to maintain the voltage on to its level. That means that if you have a 230 volt inverter, the inverter is not able to reach those 230 volts. This is also an overload, and this is an even more critical one, so there is a distinction between those two overloads and how the inverter will react on each.

If you look at the picture you can see a row of black boxes, and the small black boxes are in fact FETs and these FETs are basically what is determining the maximum power of the inverter. The more FETs you have, or the more powerful FETs you have, the more energy the inverter can do. These FETs are being protected on current, so if the current is going too high, then it will tell the software and the firmware to stop. You will find these FETs basically in all the models that we have. The smaller model inverters have fewer or smaller FETs, and the larger inverters have more of these FETs. If an overload occurs, there are different situations: the unit will stop, or the unit will warn you, or it can also lock itself, but later on I can tell something more about it. If you have a system where you have more than one inverter, so you have a parallel or a three-phase system, if one of the units detects an overload, it will stop the whole system; so if you have a three-phase system and one of the phases has an overload detected, then the complete system will stop.

You will see that also on the LEDs of the master: if you have three phases, the master will blink and will tell you exactly what is going on in that system: if you have an overload or you have a low battery or you have a temperature alarm, or something like that. So depending on where the fault is, the LEDs will flash. If you have the units connected to the VRM site, you will not always be able to look at the LEDs, but you can look on the VRM site and see in a notification where the overload is, so they will tell you then exactly if it's on L1, L2, or L3, so then you have an idea on which phase of the system you have too much load connected or maybe the startup of that load is too high. If an overload is detected by an inverter, it is not automatically switched off immediately. It does that in a certain sequence: if an overload is detected, the first thing you will see is a pre alarm, an alarm that will flash the LED and the LED will tell you there is something going on.

It could be a temperature problem or maybe a low battery, but you will see a flashing LED and that flashing LED will tell you what is the probable cause of the switching off of the inverter later on. If the overload in this case continues, then that LED will lit up constantly and that will also mean the unit will be switched off, but you will always have these three phases where it goes through; so first a blinking LED, then the alarm, and then combined with switching off of the inverter. So basically, if something happens, you will see first on the LED what is the cause and in which phase the overload is located. Overload protection is controlled by the firmware and this firmware is also deciding if the unit should we be restarted or not. Basically every unit has a pre alarm and then a complete alarm, so it will switch itself off and it will try again to restart and it will try again exactly after 30 seconds.

These 30 seconds is a fixed value. That means that if the unit is starting on another time frame than these 30 seconds, most likely something else is causing the switching off. This can be an assistant, it can be something you programmed or it can also be something externally, that you cut the DC power or something. If the unit starts up in exactly 30 seconds then you know (it can be starting up and also switching off) it is caused by the firmware. If it is something else, well then you have to look for the cause of the overload or switching off outside the unit. It will be an external cause. Also, if you switch off the unit, you can also do that through the remote panel. So you can do that on the unit itself but you can also have a remote panel connected to the inverter and switch the unit off and on with that. If the unit switches off and restarts again, and switches off, and does that three times, if it started up three times again and within 30 seconds the unit stopped, so that overload of your existing load is too high, then the unit goes into the lock state, that means the unit will not try to restart itself, it remains off and it will show on the LED in what state it is.

So it can be multiple causes that unit switches off: it can be overloads, can also be overload and low battery, it could also be overload and temperature, for example, and these LEDs will constantly lit up on the unit, that means if you come to a system and you see these LEDs you know for what reason that unit was switched off. The LEDs will never get better, they can only get worse, so you get always the maximum reason for the unit to be switched off, so if something happens during the switch off you will remain seeing that on the LEDs. So this is what I said. You can restart the unit when it is locked by using the front switch on the inverter. You can also use the remote control, but you can also, when you are not on the site, use the VRM portal to do that. I will show you later on how to do that exactly. If the unit starts up and within 30 seconds nothing happens, so it continues to run but an overload occurs after a minute or two minutes or more, then the timer is cleared, that means that the three times trying and then locking itself is always within 30 seconds. If you come through these 30 seconds then basically the timer is reset and you have again three attempts that you could possibly try to start up the inverter.

If the inverter locked itself but is on a remote location and you can connect to the unit with the remote console, then you can go to Device List, select the Multi or the Quattro that you want to reset, therefore you go to Set Up, and if you are in Set Up you will see three options: Redetect system, System reset, and Alarms. And if you go for a System reset, the unit, if it is locked, will be switched off and on again, so then again you have your three attempts. If it continues to do so, then something is really wrong and then you have to find another solution, but at least with the VRM you can remotely reset the unit, if possible. If you have three phases of course you are resetting the master and then the units should restart again. Well, basically what can an inverter handle? The inverter can handle a maximum amount of current, and that maximum amount of current is determined in the design of the unit.

If, for instance, you have a unit like this example which is an 8000VA, so 48V/8000VA, this is the current that it can do for about 30 minutes. So if you divide the 8000VA by 230 volts you will find that it is 35 Amps, so the 35 Amps is the maximum current the working inverter can handle for 30 minutes. Those 30 minutes are for normal ambient temperature. If it is too warm, warmer than the specifications on the data sheet, you have less power, if it is colder, you can even have more power than you can use for that inverter. In this, the measurement is in RMS, which means that the power factor is irrelevant because all the current is counted and measured, that means if you have a reactive or resistive power, it is the same measurement. The RMS value (true current) is used for determining how much the inverter can handle, also the RMS power is the power that the inverter actually does supply. How can you determine that? Well, you can determine the current by using an RMS meter, so if you are using a power clamp like the one on the picture, make sure you have an RMS meter because then you can see actually the same value that the inverter is measuring. Going back to what the inverter can handle, basically you have three different overload situations to take into account: the first one is the maximum power, and the maximum power when the voltage is not at a level where it is supposed to be.

So if you have a 230 volts inverter, but the inverter is not able to reach those 230 volts, it will try to supply that low grade energy. This is what you will see for instance when you start up an air conditioning of a large motor with a high startup power, if it sees that the maximum current is there but the voltage is not at its level, it will try it for 30 cycles, which is a little more than half a second. So it will start up, no matter what the voltage is, and try with the maximum current that is available to start up their load. If the voltage reaches the set point then it is okay, if it does not reach the set point within these 30 cycles, then the unit immediately switches off. The other maximum power is when the voltage is reached, so if you have a 230 volt inverter, you have 230 volt on the output and the current is maximum.

The maximum power can then be about two minutes. This is the power that you can also see in the data sheet: if you have a 5k unit, a 5000 watt unit, you will see sometimes the maximum power on the data sheet says 10 kilowatts, well that is for these two minutes while it is able to handle that power. The third one is a 30% overload. This is basically what I said in the example already: you divide the power by the voltage and then you have the 30 minutes load. This depends heavily on the ambient temperature. If the ambient temperature is higher than the normal that you expect, then you have less power, and if the temperature is lower then you even have some more time to use this overload power. So, basically, what it comes down to is if the voltage is to a set point or not, and what is the ambient temperature.

If you are designing a system, always go for the safe margin, so use the 30% if needed, but never count on options 1 and 2 because these are only extreme situations. You should try to avoid using these powers to specify a system. If you take that into real life, what can you connect to an inverter, you have to take into account that some single-phase engines, single-phase electrical motors, can draw about six times the nominal power. That means that if you have 1000 watt inverter, you can only have a small single-phase motor connected to it because a single-phase motor, in order to have it started, takes six times its nominal power, so it means that you only have 10% of that inverter more or less to start up that engine. The other way around, if you have a 1000 watt electrical motor, you need about 6000 watts startup power to get this motor running. On three-phase it is slightly better, a three-phase motor draws about three times its nominal power at startup, that means also in inverters, so inverters handle three-phase electrical motors better than single-phase electrical motors.

That is because basically the three-phase motors already have a rotation in their fases so it is easier for an electrical motor to start up. The other thing for inverters that you have to take into account is inductive load and capacitive load. An inductive or capacitive load is difficult for an inverter to handle because the inverter is basically made to have a power factor of 1. If you have an inductive or capacitive load you have to take extra margin in your inverter. Your inverter, if you want to be on the safe side, needs about a 100% reserve to be able to handle these capacitive or inductive loads. The 100% margin is for a power factor of approximately 0.7-0.8, something in that range. In those situations the inverter is able to handle that load. So these three things: start-up power single-phase, start-up three-phase are important, as well as capacitive or inductive load, so basically if you are designing a system build in these margins so that the inverter is able to start up and handle these loads.

What is also important in inverter systems, but also in other systems of course, is the circuit breakers. Circuit breakers come in many forms. I will tell you a little bit about the differences in circuit breakers. Circuit breakers trip on two criteria: one is the magnetic criteria and the other one is the thermal one. The magnetic one is for fast response and the thermal one is for overload over time, so to say. If you look at this small graph, you can see three types of curves, the B, C and D curve, and you can see that basically B has a low magnetic threshold, that means for normal household situation that will handle start-up power. The normal C is for more in-rush current so that means it will allow you more magnetic threshold, so it will start up more easily high start-up powers. D is even higher, it can do 10 to 14 times the nominal power, that means start-up power is more forgiving than curve B.

So depending on which type of loads you have in your system you choose also which type of circuit breakers you are going to use in the system. The other thing that I think is also often used is the RCD breaker. The RCD breaker trips on magnetic threshold and on thermal threshold but also has a fault current detection, which means that if more energy is supplied to the system than comes back up because the electrical circuit now is broken, so that the amount of current that is going through the circuit equals what you get in return of that circuit. If you lose current, so you can have a fault current, then this is detected by the RCD. If you have an RCD used in combination with a Multi or a Quattro we also advise to have the RCD on the output of the Multi so it is also working in inverter mode, so that you have both the protection for pass through and also in inverter mode.

I think I am already at the end of my presentation. So I invite you to, if you have any questions, do ask. Thomas: Explain the 30% overload again please. Basically, Thomas, a 30% overload, that is the power that the inverter can handle on current, but because of that power the inverter will heat up and that heat up eventually will make the inverter stop. We had the inverters named after what they can handle in 30 minutes, that means if you have a 5 kilowatt unit, you cannot use it 24/7 at 5 kilowatt because the unit eventually will heat up, so if you have a 5 kilowatt unit you can use it for 30 minutes under normal ambient temperature. Matty: I would like to hear something more about motors and inverters. Basically what I explained is that with electrical motors you have two different options: you have single-phase and three-phase, and basically what is important with the motor is that you can go through the start-up phase. On the three-phase it is quite easy because three-phase system gives already a rotation magnetic field, which means also the start-up therefore will be lower.

It is easier to start up a three-phase motor. This means if you have a three-phase engine which is 1000 watts, your inverter system only needs to handle about 3 kilowatts to be able to start up that motor. If you have that same motor but in a single-phase configuration that means the inverter should be much more powerful because it needs to take more energy to the motor to get it running and then it takes about six times the nominal power, and six times nominal power means that, in the example before, for a 1 kilowatt motor you take 3 kilowatt at least because, that is already on the edge, but a 3 kilowatt can supply 6 kilowatts of maximum power, so theoretically that would be able to start up 1000 watts electrical motor. However, if you are going to count on the maximum power with that tight margin, it is perhaps better to select an inverter with more capacity, more margin. So a 5kw or maybe even an 8kw unit should be more reliable in that respect. -Johannes, I do not know if you can hear me.

I can hear you, yeah. -Good. Is there any benefit between using different types of battery technology, do you get a better performance on a Lithium vs. LED on an overload condition? – Yes, the question is if the battery has influence on the overload. It does, because of the voltage. An inverter makes an AC voltage out of DC, that means the better quality DC you have, the easier it will be for the inverter, so certainly a Lithium battery, which has a very firm DC voltage, will make performance on an inverter better than a LED battery, which drops kind of easily in voltage when you have a big overload condition there. So, yes, the size of the battery matters, also the chemistry of the batteries – if you have LED or Lithium – but also the wiring, of course, also use efficient wiring to prevent having a lot of losses in your system. I have a question on my list: do you think it is possible to use a 3000 Multiplus with a load that consumes 2500 W on a peak for 0.5 sec every 3 sec all day long? and for the rest 2.5 sec..

. This is a difficult one, but basically, a 3000VA Multiplus can handle 2500 watt peak but it depends also of course on the temperature because you are basically at the limit of what the unit can do, but theoretically you can do that. And for the rest 2.5 sec 100 watt, that is an easy one, that it will certainly do. But again, if you are designing a system, please try to design that system with a little wide margin, so it has a margin built-in and is reliable, because over time the batteries get a little bit worse or you can have different ambient temperature situations so you could end up in a critical situation, but theoretically, Filippo, this should work. Matty, you want to know what the biggest Multi installation ever done by Victron is. Is that correct? Do I read that correctly? Yes.

Well, from the top of my head, but I can be wrong, it is 270 kilowatts, that is the biggest one we ever did, but we do not advise people to go that large because building these systems requires a lot of engineering, especially when you have a three-phase system you make this system with a lot of units, that means you have a lot of current distribution that you have to do, so therefore it is not supported to make the system that large. What we try to do is have the maximum of inverters at six units and basically that comes down to about 100-150 kilowatts maximum. We also get Matthijs. Matthijs sends also a comment. There is a link on Victron Energy live there you can see a manual on parallel and three-phase systems and there is also a description on what the maximum size is and which things to consider. Emmanuel: can you say a little bit more about inductive and capacitive loads with examples versus inverter power and capability? Basically, Emmanuel, if you have capacitive power that means the unit needs to supply RMS power, so on energy that is more than basically what you should expect normally and therefore the inverter will have a hard time, so if you have a lot of fluorescent lights or you have other things with inductive or capacitive for an inverter, you will have more power to supply than what meets the eye, so therefore you have to take that into account, that you need to have a bigger inverter than the lights that you connect.

Like I said, if you have a power factor of 0.7 or around that, then you take at least a 100% margin in your inverter because your inverter needs to be able to power that extra load. Matty asked: To run a motor three-phase of 10kVA I need a 20kVA inverter? Yeah, if you have a three-phase motor of 10kVA that means you have about… let's say 3kVA per phase you need. You need to have a 20kVA inverter system, indeed you have to have three times an 8 kilowatt to run that motor. It depends a little bit on what that motor is connected to. If you have something which is easily started up you can do that. There are some specific loads that also are connected to something which is immediately taking a lot of energy. In that perspective you can also do different things, for instance, a frequency controller.

A frequency controller makes the motor start up slower than a direct drive and therefore a frequency controller can help improve the start of capacity of an inverter. You have also phase-cutting devices which lower the voltage, which normally, for the grid, means that you have less power from the grid to start up a motor but, if you use these kind of appliances for inverters, they actually work the other way around, because they even give the inverter a stretched startup period, so only frequency drives are good to work, soft starts are actually not that good to be used with inverters. I get another question: the BMS low voltage will give a red bar on the VRM but also a low voltage set on the dynamic cutoff settings. Both will appear red on the VRM? I would like to distinguish them. Basically, the dynamic cutoff is something within the inverter itself and at the moment is a part of ESS so it is software driven alarm and actually it has not so much to do with overload of the inverter, it has more to do with what the battery is able to handle, and if you want the battery to be on discharge voltage, so to say.

So it has not so much to do with the inverter itself on overload. If you do not want to have dynamic cutoff, simply do not use ESS because ESS has that, or you can also change the settings of course so that you have a higher voltage level and then basically you do not see that alarm anymore. Thank you for listening and well, perhaps another time! Bye bye..