Scientific Skepticism | Dr. Steven J. Allen

97% is a number you might have heard a lot in the last few years. That’s the number of scientists who supposedly believe in global warming theory. That 97% claim is questionable, but let’s ask the more important question: why do we find the idea of consensus convincing at all? The terms “Global Warming Skeptic” and “Climate Change Skeptic” are insults, but those who use this line of attack ignore that science only works when there are skeptics. Science is rooted in replicable research and experimentation. A scientist examines an existing set of facts, and concocts a theory that explains those facts. He or she makes a prediction to test that theory. If the prediction comes true, that constitutes evidence to support the theory. If the prediction fails, that undermines the theory, and the scientist goes back to the drawing board. It doesn’t matter whether a scientist is on the payroll of the American Cancer Society or a tobacco company, whether he is a Communist, or a Jew or a Baptist, beats her spouse, or volunteers at a soup kitchen. Only the evidence counts.

But what happens when someone gets the evidence wrong and it needs correction? That’s what critical peer review, aka “skepticism,” is for. In biomedical sciences, non-replication rates are estimated to range between 75 to 90 percent. Venture capital firms now take it for granted that 50 percent of published academic studies cannot be replicated. Imagine what would be done in those cases if there were no skeptics. Business and medicine would be at a standstill. If climate skeptics end up being correct, those attempting to silence them will go down in history alongside the members of the “scientific consensus” that, in years past, agreed that the earth was the center of the universe, that continental drift was impossible, that canals existed on Mars, and that evils such as white supremacy and eugenics were scientifically true.

When told of a publication entitled “100 Authors Against Einstein,” Albert Einstein reputedly said, “Why one hundred? If I were wrong, one would have been enough.” Science cannot function if skeptics are harassed and ostracized. When someone is challenging a scientific consensus with facts and logic, that’s to be encouraged, not dismissed due to politics. Argument, not anathemas, is the way to approach scientific issues surrounding climate changes. To learn more, you can read our study on Climate Change advocacy at I’m Dr. Steven J. Allen, thanks for watching..

Top 10 Recently Discovered Earth Like Planets

Welcome to Top10Archive! The longer we stay on Earth, the more apparent it becomes that maybe we should have a backup plan should we live long enough to completely dry ‘er up. On our quest to find the perfect place to call Second Home, we’ve come across these incredible exoplanets. Factoring in the Earth Similarity Index or ESI, we’ve compiled the Top 10 Earth-like planets discovered over the past decade. 10. Kapteyn B In June of 2014, the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher discovered the potentially habitable exoplanet Kapteyn B. Found to reside in a system estimated at over 11 billion years old, about 7 billion years older than our own solar system, Kapteyn B orbits the red subdwarf star Kapteyn and is 12.8 light-years away from Earth. Kapteyn B has an ESI of .67 and, while found within a habitable zone capable of liquid water, is believed to have a temperature of approximately -91° F or roughly -68° C and, therefore, too cold to sustain water in a liquid form, but with enough C02 in its atmosphere, this may not even be a factor.

Working against the argument of habitability is the fact that some researchers, such as Paul Robertson at Penn State University, think Kapteyn B may not even exist and may just be a starspot mimicking a planetary signal. 9. Gliese 667 Cc Orbiting around the red dwarf star Gliese 667 C some 23 light years away, the exoplanet Gliese 667 Cc is within the habitable zone and has an ESI of .84. In November of 2011, astronomers noticed the super-Earth and started to find similarities to our own planet. The habitability of Gliese 667 Cc depends on where you’re aiming to terraform as the two hemispheres display complete opposite properties. One side is completely shrouded in permanent darkness while the other is constantly facing towards the red dwarf. It’s believed that, between these hemispheres, there is a sliver of space that may experience temperatures suitable for human life. There is, however, a possibility of extreme tidal heating upwards of 300 times that of Earth, calling into question whether, at times, if Gliese 667 Cc may be a little too hot for habitation.

8. Kepler 442b Launched in 2009, NASA’s Kepler space observatory has succeeded on numerous occasions in its mission to find Earth-sized planets. Announced in January of 2015, alongside the discovery of Kepler-438b, 442b has an ESI of .83 and a radius of 1.34 radians, quite a bit larger than Earth’s radius of .009 radians. While located within the habitable zone and deemed one of the most Earth-like planets in regards to temperature and size, life would be quite a bit different on 442b. For instance, a year would only be 112.3 days long and we’d experience only 70% of the sunlight that we’re used to receiving on Earth. Since the axial tilt is believed to be fairly small, we also shouldn’t expect to enjoy the quarterly change in seasons that we’re accustomed to. 7. Proxima B With an ESI of .87, Proxima b may be one of the most Earth-like exoplanets to date, but that doesn’t mean it’s the greatest candidate for habitability.

Though it shares many characteristics with Earth and touts a higher ESI, if you haven’t noticed yet, that’s not a guaranteed proponent of habitability. In fact, Proxima b, which is only 4.2 light-years away, is likely uninhabitable due to incredibly high stellar wind pressures. Compared to Earth, Proxima b is thought to be subjected to pressures of more than 2,000 times what we experience. Coupled with the radiation from its host star, it’s possible that the exoplanet would have no atmosphere to sustain life. In October of 2016, researchers at the National Center for Scientific Research in France hypothesized a chance for surface oceans and a thin atmospheric layer, though proof has yet to be discovered. 6. Kepler 438b In January of 2015, the newly found Kepler 438b, located 470 light years away, was deemed one of the most “Earth-like” planets ever discovered, making it an incredible candidate for the potential of life. Though it has a potential ESI of .88 and still carries similarities to our home world, research later that year determined that, while still “Earth-like,” 438b may be missing qualities needed for habitation – such as an atmosphere.

The planet’s nearby star emits flares 10 times more powerful than the Sun, leading to the possibility of a stripped atmosphere. There’s still hope that Kepler-438b, which is 12% larger and receives 40% more light than Earth, may be usable if it has a magnetic field like our own. 5. Wolf 1061 c At an ESI of .76, Wolf 1061 c is a potentially rocky super-Earth exoplanet discovered in December of 2015, some 14 light-years away from Earth. Orbiting Wolf 1061 at .084 AU, the exoplanet is closer to the inner edge of the habitable zone and is believed to be tidally locked. With one side permanently fixated on its star, the possibility of an extreme difference in temperatures on either side of the planet is incredibly likely. On the warmer side, liquid water may be sustainable, though it’s hypothesized to have an icy equilibrium temperature of -58° F or about -50° C, that could be offset by a thick atmosphere that allows for a transfer of heat away from the side of the planet facing Wolf 1061. 4. Kepler 62 e A Super-Earth found within the habitable zone of the Kepler 62 star, this exoplanet, which was discovered in 2013, has an ESI of .

83 and has some of the imperative qualities of potentially livable planets. On top of being rocky, the planet is also believed to be covered in an extensive amount of water. One factor working against 62 e as a habitable zone is the 20% increase in stellar flux from what we experience on Earth, which can trigger temperatures as high as 170° F or about 77 ° C, and start a detrimental greenhouse effect. In relation to Earth, 62 e is 60% larger and orbits the Kepler 62 star 243 days quicker and receives 20% more sunlight than Earth does. 3. Kepler 62f Kepler 62 f may only have an ESI of .67, but this super-Earth, discovered at the same time as 62e at about 1,200 light-years away from Earth, poses one of the best scenarios for habitability.

Where the exoplanet may fall short in its ability to sustain life is its possible lack of an atmosphere, which would lead to any surface water to be ice. At 1.4 times larger than Earth and with an orbital period of 267 days, life on 62f would be fairly similar to life on Earth – that is, of course, if its atmosphere were similar to that of our own. As of now, much remains unknown about the theoretically habitable planet, including whether or not it’s mostly terrestrial or predominantly covered in water. 2. Kepler-186f Kepler 186f of the Kepler 186 system may only have an ESI of .61, but the 2014 discovery is the first Earth-like exoplanet to have a radius similar to Earth’s – measuring in at about 10% larger. Found 500 light-years from Earth in the Cygnus constellation, 186f has an orbital period of 130 days and only receives 1/3 the energy from its star that Earth receives from the Sun. In terms of livability, 186f is within the habitable zone, but unknown atmospheric factors make how habitable it may be impossible to determine.

Like Kepler 442b, 186f has a low obliquity that keeps it from experiencing seasons like Earth. Of the four other planets in the Kepler system, 186f is believed to not be tidally locked like its neighbors and may be the only one far enough away from the Kepler star to sustain water. 1. Kepler 452b Also known as Earth 2.0, the discovery of Kepler 452b by the Kepler space telescope was announced in July of 2015. Found 1,400 light-years away from Earth, the super-Earth, which has an ESI of .83, was located in the habitable zone of a G-type star that shares a very similar mass and surface temperature of our Sun. While 452b’s smaller radius indicates it may have a rocky, terrestrial surface, the habitability of the exoplanet remains widely unknown, though it is believed to be subjected to a runaway greenhouse effect. The exoplanet is approximately 60% larger than Earth and has a year that’s only 5% longer than our own, earning it the title of Earth’s Cousin.


Why We Might All Soon Go EXTINCT!-Facts in 5

– Ooh, this one's a hot topic. That joke was a lot funnier when I wrote it down. So, global warming, or climate change as it's more commonly referred to these days, is a highly contended topic. People on both sides have very strong opinions about it, whether they believe in it or not. And because of all of the information coming from both sides, including some misinformation, it can be really hard to form an opinion. Well, in this Facts in Five, I'm going to explain to you everything that you need to know about global warming in five minutes or less so that you can form your own educated opinion. Some people support it with solid science while others say it's just a sham. Can't figure out what side you're on? Well, maybe this will help. This is Facts in Five all about global warming. So, what is global warming? Global warming refers to the gradual increase that many believe is occurring to the average temperature in our atmosphere and oceans.

That is, in addition to the overall alteration of the Earth's climate. Now, this change can be attributed to the increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, as well as other pollutants that are finding their way into our atmosphere. Many people feel that climate change is the single greatest humanitarian crisis of our time. This is mostly due to the different threats it creates, such as to our health, national security, and our communities. And, you'd even seen it in politics. Nations have begun taking this crisis very seriously and are now taking steps to combat it by reducing pollution and increasing awareness. Kinda like what I'm doing right now. Unless, of course, you don't believe in it, in which case, you're like, who's this Mister Clean-lookin' douche flappin' his gums.

So, who benefits or suffers from global warming? While it's easy to see the negative effects of climate change, believe it or not, there are plenty of individuals who are actually benefiting from it. Global warming is said to be the future cause of issues, such as spreading of disease, wars, and potentially the biggest economic disruption since World War II. But, believe it or not, this could actually create a profit for certain groups. Think about it. If there's less land to own, then the available land's worth greatly increases. The economy would be hugely altered, resources would become more expensive to acquire, and those with an abundance of those resources are really going to profit. So, when you're gathering information from certain sources on this topic, think what do they have to benefit from this. Where are the effects of global warming apparent? You can see the effects of global warming in virtually any country and climate that you can visit on this planet.

After all, it's said to be responsible for the storms and tsunamis that destroy cities and coastlines, the fires that ravage forests and plains, and the rising seas that are slowly placing more and more land underwater. Not to mention, droughts that continue to increase world hunger. But, it's important to realize, that it's not just the extreme events that reveal how much global warming is affecting us, it's both the cause of this searing heat in the summer and the unbearably cold weather temperatures in the winter. In fact, according to experts, the probability that all of these changes could simply happen by chance is virtually zero. When will global warming be addressed? Never! We're all doomed, doomed! (laughter) Nah, I'm just kidding. You're actually seeing it being addressed right now, especially in politics, but it goes much farther back than that. Temperature records, that have been started as far back as 1880, show that the twenty warmest years that the Earth has ever seen have occurred since 1981. And, more than that, with ten of them occurring in the last 12 years. In 2004, experts at the Pentagon, filed a report that said that climate change could potentially wipe out the Earth's population by 2024.

That's around the corner. Eleven years later, on August 3, 2015, US President Barack Obama revealed the Clean Power Plan. That for the first time in American history sets national limits on carbon pollution from power plants. Why is this so important? Well, because US power plants produce the most carbon pollution by far and reducing it means the reduction, or at least slowing, of global warming, a k a you have a better chance of staying alive and not becoming a human boiled lobster. Why does global warming happen? Over the last century, fossil fuels, such as oil and coal have been burned all over the globe, increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. This, alongside other gases, including water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide, act as a thermal blanket for our planet. Then, the Sun rays pass through the atmosphere and warm the Earth, however, that heat is then radiated back into space, except that some of it gets absorbed by those gases and slowly increases the Earth's overall temperature.

In addition to fossil fuels, other potential causes of global warming are deforestation, vast uses of pesticides, increases in garbage produced within landfills, and of course, overpopulation, just to name a few. At the end of the day, this is a very real crisis that experts say should not be a debate anymore, but, all I can give you is some of the facts. I highly encourage you guys to do research on your own. Inform your own educated opinion. Which, believe me guys, is super important considering there are some politicians who are actually climate change deniers. Very scary. That being said, I wanted to remind you guys that you can now watch all of my videos on or if you're on the go, which pretty much everybody is, nowadays, download the Watchable mobile app so you can watch everything as you go. And, as always, if you guys enjoy this video, please click that like button and be sure to subscribe to this channel so that you can catch my next video. I love you guys.

Thank you for watching it. Let's save the planet, 'cause I don't wanna die. All right guys, I'll see you next video. Peace..

How do we stop global warming and should we even do it? Is it too late?

On the 21st of February, 1804., the first steam locomotive started its engine. It was using coal as a fuel and its main characteristic was the black smoke that it left behind. Soon after that, everyone was burning fossil fuels and polluting our precious air. Sadly, many people still don’t believe in global warming. The fact is that it is happening and it might already be too late to stop it. In the 1950s we started using weather balloons and satellites that could measure temperature of the Earths’ surface and the Earths’ temperature has been rising ever since we started measuring it. But why is this happening? You’ve probably heard about the Greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases like water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and others start building up in the atmosphere. As Sun heats the Earth, Greenhouse gases prevent that heat from escaping. Imagine that like putting a lid over your pan. So I hear you say “I didn’t like cold weather anyways, what’s the big deal with this Global warming?”.

Well, let me tell you this. Even a slight temperature rise is enough to cause dramatic transformation to our planet. There will be many types of disasters, including storms, heat waves, floods and droughts. Air pollution will get way worse by increasing ground level ozone which is created when pollution from cars and other sources reacts to sunlight and heat. Also expect higher death rates and higher wildlife extinction rates. Land animals that don’t adapt will quickly disappear from the face of this planet. If you feel hot, which you will, forget going for a swim in the ocean. Oceans will become way more acidic. Not only that that will be a threat to you, but to underwater life as well. Oh yes. And higher sea levels. New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Mumbai, Sydney, Rio de Janeiro. Gone.

So, have we passed the point of no return on climate change? Maybe. What do we do? There are three things we need to do if we want to save the Earth. 1 – Reduce our pollution; 2 – Remove the current greenhouse gases from our atmosphere and 3 – cool the Earth down. First of all, we must eliminate burning of coal, oil and gas. That is the hardest part. Harvesting energy from the Sun is probably our best bet. Get this: Buildings worldwide contribute around one third of all greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce that, it would be the best to invest in better insulation and other cost-effective, temperature-regulating steps. Vehicle transportation is the second leading source of gas emissions. So far, electric cars seem like a best bet to prevent that. After reducing our pollution, we need to remove existing greenhouse gases.

The most obvious way would be planting more trees. A similar solution is to plant algae on buildings. They will take care of our carbon dioxide problem. Another idea is to launch Sulphur particles into the atmosphere. It would block out the sunlight and therefore cool down the planet. Only downside is that it would make our sky look purple. We could launch tiny mirrors in space and make them reflect the sunlight, but that would require one trillion mirrors and would cost around $350 trillion. Probably the best idea is the one that Bill Gates and NASA came up with. They would build machines that would be placed into the ocean. Those machines would then launch sea water up into the atmosphere, creating clouds. Clouds would then reflect sunlight, cooling down our planet. But, those are all large scale projects that require a lot of funding to be done.

What could you do to help the planet? People often underestimate how much can they do just by doing little things, one of the excuses being “Why should I do it when other people won’t do it?”. Here’s the thing. You can do a lot just by yourself. A great bonus is that with saving the environment you’ll be saving money as well. Start by replacing regular light bulbs with fluorescent ones. Install a programmable thermostat. Move it down two degrees in winter and two degrees up in summer. That way you’ll save almost a tonne of co2 each year. Clean and replace filters on your furnace and air conditioner. Replace single-glazed windows with double-glazed ones. Cover your pots while cooking. Use the washing machine or dishwasher only when they are full. Take a shower instead of a bath. Use less hot water.

Don’t buy products that you don’t need. Reuse your shopping bag. Reduce waste. Carpool. Don’t leave an empty roof rack on your car. Regularly maintain your car. Do not waste fuel. Keep tires on your car inflated. Spread the cause, making sure your voice is heard. So, to summarize this video. Global warming is a very bad thing. We need to reduce burning of fossil fuels and we have to be as efficient as possible. We need more trees or algae to reduce the current co2 levels in the atmosphere. After all that has been done, we'll still need a way to cool down the Earth. Cloud machines seem like a best solution to this problem. Our prediction is that renewable sources of energy are our only hope. Solar panels, wind farms and similar ways of producing energy will take over. You’ll be cooking your lunch on an electric stove and lighting your candles with an electric lighter.

As car enthusiasts, the idea of an electric car saddens us. Automatic transmissions in vehicles that don’t make any noise. But we’d rather drive electric cars than live in a burning, stormy, flooded, polluted hell that could be our planet if we don’t do anything about it. Thanks for watching! If you liked this video, please give it a like. Share it with your friends, or else we’ll have absolutely no hope of saving the Earth. I’m serious. The future of Earth and humanity depends on you sharing this video. Do it. Oh yeah, and subscribe for more of our content..

The Greatest Threat to Existence as We Know it

imagine its a beautiful day in April of 2017 three children in different parts of the world are going about their daily lives as they do every day and as their parents have done for countless generations meet Hiro in Japan Hiro wants to be a successful banker one day just like his father but right now he is more interested in spaceships and planets Abasie lives in Kenya with his parents and grandparents one day he wants to travel the world in his own little sailboat akash lives in india with his big happy family when Akash grows up he wants to be the world's greatest chef and so life goes on hiro becomes an astronaut much to his fathers suprise Abasie travels the world in his sailboat and Akash opened his own restaurant in his home town they grow old and pass on having lived fulfilled lifes their children follow and thier children's children until one day in April of 2100 Akoh and his family are crammed with thousands of other people at Haneda Airport hoping it's not too late sadly the people of Tokyo never had a chance the once-proud city is reduced to rubble by tsunami the likes of which has never been seen Anassa lyes in the dark of his quiet home and he knows his time has come it hasn't rained in months all the crops and livestock have died and the well dried up long ago the people of Kenya suffer the slow death of starvation and dehydration oni draws ragged breaths in his hospital bed his body ravaged by disease is the last living member of his family the population of India has fallen drastically these are a few hypothetical scenarios from various parts of the globe while they may seem unrelated they all share a common catalyst climate change as 2017 begins and the United States presidency changes hands it has become increasingly apparent that the new regime is full of climate change deniers and fossil fuel advocates it is more important than ever to spread real information regarding climate change and the catastrophic effects it can produce within the next 100 years let's start with the common misconception when some people hear the term global warming they'll point to an instance of colder than normal weather like the Sahara Desert recently and say that's ridiculous it's snowing here this objection stems from a misunderstanding of how weather differs from climate weather refers to local changes over short periods of time such as minutes hours days or weeks typical examples of whether include rain clouds snow wind and thunderstorms climate refers to longer-term averages and maybe regional or global in scale and can be thought of as weather averaged over an extended period of time typically years or decades an easy way to remember the distinction is weather is what you get climate is what you expect now that we have a good understanding of how climate and weather differ let's look at the scientific consensus over ninety seven percent of actively publishing climate scientists agree that climate warming trends over the past 100 years are extremely likely to have been caused largely by human activity that number goes up to over ninety-nine percent if you include climate scientists who have not recently published scholarly articles most of the leading scientific organizations around the world have issued public statements endorsing this position there are too many to list in this video so i put a link in the description of organizations and their statements climate change deniers tend to latch onto studies that disprove the trend but you always notice that the studies are either not peer-reviewed come from a known anti-science publisher or come from a scientist in a completely unrelated filled with an agenda of their own so where does this problem come from the largest contributing factor to climate change is the burning of fossil fuels oil coal and natural gas all release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when burned carbon dioxide is considered a greenhouse gas which simply means it sticks around in the upper atmosphere and traps heat the more carbon dioxide is released the more the atmosphere heats up this temperature increase then causes other problems such as melting glaciers and polar ice as arctic ice melts it releases co2 and methane a more potent greenhouse gas compounding the problem by making the atmosphere even warmer the smelting morais it's a vicious cycle ok but where do we stand right now what's the damage as of the end of 2016 carbon dioxide levels are up by nearly 405 parts-per-million the highest in 650,000 years global temperatures up by one point seven degrees since eighteen eighty and nine of the last ten hottest years on record happened since 2000 the tenth being 1998 Arctic ice is shrinking at a rate of 13.

3 percent per decade and land ice is disappearing at a rate of 281 gigatons per year Greenland ice loss doubled between 1996 in 2005 and finally the global sea level has risen seven inches in the last 100 you're probably thinking well that doesn't sound too bad let's look at the consequences by category first the melting of polar ice of course we've all heard that global warming affects the poor polar bears but it's true and it's severe at the current rate of melting which is likely to increase the Arctic is projected to see its first ice-free summer by 2050 imagine that all of the ice gone and yes that likely means extinction for the polar bears within a hundred years and it's not just polar bears some species of ice dependent seals will die off if they can't adapt including harp ringed ribbon and bearded seals then there are the ivory goals and ox ivory goals have already suffered a ninety percent population reduction in Canada over the past 20 years then there's the walrus the arctic fox small plant eaters like ground squirrels hairs lemmings involves large planters like moose caribou reindeer and musk ox and meat eaters like weasels wolverines wolves foxes bears and birds of prey the melting ice is likely to cause a domino effect knocking out species that other species depend upon for food melting ice brings us to our next category rising sea level over the past 100 years the global sea level has risen approximately seven inches the more alarming fact is that the rate of rise in the last decade is nearly double the rate of the entire last century at this rate rising sea level puts coastal cities and islands at great risk SC water reaches further inland it can cause destructive erosion flooding of wetlands contamination of aquifers and agricultural soils and lost habitat for fish birds and plants most projections show the sea level will rise between point 8 and 2 meters by 2100 which would be catastrophic for many low-lying islands and much of the eastern coast of the United States more dire predictions based upon the complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet project a rise up to seven meters that's enough to submerge London the third category is the one with which most people are familiar global temperature rise as CO2 accumulates in our atmosphere the temperature creeps steadily upward the annual increase is measured at roughly 1.

7 degrees Fahrenheit this increase in temperature could cause the most drastic immediate effects of all three categories the list is long and distressing so here we go global warming will cause droughts and heat waves which are already responsible for killing more people per year than floods hurricanes lightning and tornadoes combined it will aggravate the spread of disease warmer weather allows disease bears to be active longer and further abroad warmer ocean temperatures will allow pathogens to flourish as we've already seen with the widespread coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef this coral houses twenty-five percent of all marine diversity and the reef is already declined by fifty percent in the last thirty years when the coral goes we'll lose hundreds of thousands of species dependent upon it for shelter which will collapse much of the marine food chain back on land fishing will suffer droughts will destroy crops and livestock and create a water scarcity pushing farmers and people in rural areas into the city this will cause overcrowding and help spark civil wars that killed hundreds of thousands like it did in Syria GDP is expected to plummet by twenty-three percent by 2100 caused by property damage from flooding droughts wildfires storms loss of productivity loss of tourism and illness you can see how quickly the situation can snowball wildly out-of-control it seems very dire but what can we do is it too late to stop the changes we put in motion it's hard to say for sure but the affect humans have had on this earth is severe and the changes have indeed been set in motion even if we stopped emitting greenhouse gases today global warming would continue for at least several more decades since carbon dioxide can linger in the atmosphere for up to centuries some experts believe we're approaching a tipping point a point at which abrupt perhaps irreversible changes would tip our climate into a new state however it may not be too late to limit some of the worst effects of climate change two important steps are required one mitigation the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and two adaptation learning to cope with and adapt to the climate changes that have already been set in motion recycling and driving fuel-efficient cars are important steps in the right direction but not sufficient on their own it will take a globally coordinated response such as clean energy agreements between nations as well as local efforts on the city and regional level such as sustainable City Planning public transportation upgrades and energy efficiency improvements so yes climate change is the biggest threat to existence as we know it and is deeply troubling that the United States government seeks to normalize ignorance of good science so if you're concerned for the future of the planet and generations to come do your part help spread this information because the earth truly is worth saving if you enjoyed this video please leave a like or a comment and subscribe to keep up with the latest content thanks for watching and we'll see you in the next video.