Rachel Armstrong: Architecture that repairs itself?

All buildings today have something in common. They’re made using Victorian technologies. This involves blueprints, industrial manufacturing and construction using teams of workers. All of this effort results in an inert object. And that means that there is a one-way transfer of energy from our environment into our homes and cities. This is not sustainable.

I believe that the only way that it is possible for us to construct genuinely sustainable homes and cities is by connecting them to nature, not insulating them from it. Now, in order to do this, we need the right kind of language. Living systems are in constant conversation with the natural world, through sets of chemical reactions called metabolism. And this is the conversion of one group of substances into another, either through the production or the absorption of energy.

“The little bag is able to conduct itself in a way that can only be described as living”

And this is the way in which living materials make the most of their local resources in a sustainable way. So, I’m interested in the use of metabolic materials for the practice of architecture. But they don’t exist. So I’m having to make them. I’m working with architect Neil Spiller at the Bartlett School of Architecture, and we’re collaborating with international scientists in order to generate these new materials from a bottom up approach. That means we’re generating them from scratch. One of our collaborators is chemist Martin Hanczyc, and he’s really interested in the transition from inert to living matter. Now, that’s exactly the kind of process that I’m interested in, when we’re thinking about sustainable materials. So, Martin, he works with a system called the protocell. Now all this is – and it’s magic – is a little fatty bag. And it’s got a chemical battery in it. And it has no DNA. This little bag is able to conduct itself in a way that can only be described as living.

It is able to move around its environment. It can follow chemical gradients. It can undergo complex reactions, some of which are happily architectural. So here we are. These are protocells, patterning their environment. We don’t know how they do that yet. Here, this is a protocell, and it’s vigorously shedding this skin. Now, this looks like a chemical kind of birth. This is a violent process. Here, we’ve got a protocell to extract carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and turn it into carbonate. And that’s the shell around that globular fat. They are quite brittle. So you’ve only got a part of one there. So what we’re trying to do is, we’re trying to push these technologies towards creating bottom-up construction approaches for architecture, which contrast the current, Victorian, top-down methods which impose structure upon matter. That can’t be energetically sensible. So, bottom-up materials actually exist today.

“The protocells are depositing their limestone very specifically, around the foundations of Venice, effectively petrifying it”

They’ve been in use, in architecture, since ancient times. If you walk around the city of Oxford, where we are today, and have a look at the brickwork, which I’ve enjoyed doing in the last couple of days, you’ll actually see that a lot of it is made of limestone. And if you look even closer, you’ll see, in that limestone, there are little shells and little skeletons that are piled upon each other. And then they are fossilized over millions of years. Now a block of limestone, in itself, isn’t particularly that interesting. It looks beautiful. But imagine what the properties of this limestone block might be if the surfaces were actually in conversation with the atmosphere. Maybe they could extract carbon dioxide. Would it give this block of limestone new properties? Well, most likely it would. It might be able to grow. It might be able to self-repair, and even respond to dramatic changes in the immediate environment.

So, architects are never happy with just one block of an interesting material. They think big. Okay? So when we think about scaling up metabolic materials, we can start thinking about ecological interventions like repair of atolls, or reclamation of parts of a city that are damaged by water. So, one of these examples would of course be the historic city of Venice. Now, Venice, as you know, has a tempestuous relationship with the sea, and is built upon wooden piles. So we’ve devised a way by which it may be possible for the protocell technology that we’re working with to sustainably reclaim Venice. And architect Christian Kerrigan has come up with a series of designs that show us how it may be possible to actually grow a limestone reef underneath the city. So, here is the technology we have today. This is our protocell technology, effectively making a shell, like its limestone forefathers, and depositing it in a very complex environment, against natural materials. We’re looking at crystal lattices to see the bonding process in this.

Now, this is the very interesting part. We don’t just want limestone dumped everywhere in all the pretty canals. What we need it to do is to be creatively crafted around the wooden piles. So, you can see from these diagrams that the protocell is actually moving away from the light, toward the dark foundations. We’ve observed this in the laboratory. The protocells can actually move away from the light. They can actually also move towards the light. You have to just choose your species. So that these don’t just exist as one entity, we kind of chemically engineer them. And so here the protocells are depositing their limestone very specifically, around the foundations of Venice, effectively petrifying it. Now, this isn’t going to happen tomorrow. It’s going to take a while. It’s going to take years of tuning and monitoring this technology in order for us to become ready to test it out in a case-by-case basis on the most damaged and stressed buildings within the city of Venice.

But gradually, as the buildings are repaired, we will see the accretion of a limestone reef beneath the city. An accretion itself is a huge sink of carbon dioxide. Also it will attract the local marine ecology, who will find their own ecological niches within this architecture. So, this is really interesting. Now we have an architecture that connects a city to the natural world in a very direct and immediate way. But perhaps the most exciting thing about it is that the driver of this technology is available everywhere. This is terrestrial chemistry. We’ve all got it, which means that this technology is just as appropriate for developing countries as it is for First World countries. So, in summary, I’m generating metabolic materials as a counterpoise to Victorian technologies, and building architectures from a bottom-up approach. Secondly, these metabolic materials have some of the properties of living systems, which means they can perform in similar ways.

They can expect to have a lot of forms and functions within the practice of architecture. And finally, an observer in the future marveling at a beautiful structure in the environment may find it almost impossible to tell whether this structure has been created by a natural process or an artificial one.

5 Islands That Are Going To Disappear

There are places in the world which are being eaten away as sea levels rise. What’s going to happen to them!? Whether you call it global warming or climate change, this shiz is going down – it’s happening. According to a study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, for every 2 degrees (1 C) increase in global temperatures, the seas will rise seven feet (2.3 M). That’s HUGE.

Sea levels are rising because of melting ice, yes, but ALSO warming oceans – as you might remember from physics, warm things expand, and that includes water. But when you’re talking about quintillions of gallons, even a small expansion can up sea levels. Places like Kiribati – a 33 island-nation in the Pacific, are already being affected. The 100,000 people that live on Kiribati’s islands have already started to feel rising seas encroach on their way of life. Perhaps as soon as 30 years from now, their country will become uninhabitable. Because of seawater creeping into their fields, the government purchased 6,000 acres (2428 hectares) on nearby Fiji so they could provide food security and a refuge if people become homeless.

This is happening now! And they’re not the only ones, the 350 archipelago chains of Panama are being lost to sea level rise, and though they’re lucky to have the mainland of Panama to move onto, the indigenous Kuna people have lived there for thousands of years – and now, thanks to global climate screwery – their islands will be underwater in maybe 20 years. 20! Tuvalu is a famous island nation, for two, rather saddening reasons. One, they are like 10 feet (3 meters) above sea level, and they’re slowly disappearing. And two, they blame two of the largest carbon emitters for destroying their nation and threatened to sue them in the International Court of Justice in the Hague. Those two countries were the United States and Australia.

Kiribati and the Maldives joined the lawsuit, but it never came to fruition. The seas of Funafuti, the atoll Tuvalu is on, have risen about a quarter inch (5.5 mm) every year for the last decade. During World War II, US soldiers placed a gun embankment on a Tuvalu beach, and it’s now 20 feet offshore. But this isn’t just happening on tiny, far-flung Pacific islands. The city of Venice is 118 islands built up over 1,500 years. As sea levels increase 2 millimeters every year, they’re trying to build seawalls to stop the oceans, but in the next 20 years, they’ll be fighting 3.2 inches (80 mm) more ocean, with more coming every year. More to splash around, more to flood, and more to try to hold back. And holding back the sea is only part of it, a warming climate means more intense storms and higher levels mean bigger storm surges…

The Sydney Opera was built 11 feet above sea level and is only 41 years old, and scientists are worried the pier it’s built on will be increasingly vulnerable to storm surges and extreme weather. And 2012 study by the U.S. Geological Survey predicts the sea levels on the eastern seaboard of the United States will rise three to four times faster than the global average! After Superstorm Sandy, Liberty Island where New York’s Statue of Liberty stands, was 75 percent under water and Ellis Island was completely submerged. These monuments might seem like they’ll be there forever, but as seas rise and the earth warms… We don’t know… How does stuff like this make you feel? Should island nations be able to sue carbon-spewing ones? Tell us what you think in the comments below, we do actually read them, ya know.